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Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans

and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well being and overall system performance. Practitioners of ergonomics, ergonomists, contribute to the planning, design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, organizations, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people.

PHYSICAL ERGONOMICS COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS ORGANIZATIONAL ERGONOMICS

Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. The relevant topics include working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, work-related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health.

Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. The relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design.

Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of sociotechnical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes. The relevant topics include communication, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work paradigms, organizational culture, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.

In the workshop there are a number of hazards specific to welding or cutting. In addition, there may be other hazards of a more general nature present in the fabrication environment. All potential hazards need to be identified, measured (where appropriate) and assessed. Remedial measures must be put in place wherever necessary. Although Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should not be issued as the primary method of reducing a hazard, it should be issued to all personnel if beneficial. Employers and employees should be made fully aware of the dangers that can arise and take all reasonable care to ensure the health and safety of all.

Eye injuries are among the most common of all injuries caused by welding and cutting. Damage can be due to non-ionising radiation, foreign bodies, fumes and gases

Burn injury is a hazard faced by welders every working day; after all they are using a process that involves molten metal and high temperature welding arcs.

In manual electric arc welding operations, the major electrical hazard is electric shock. The exposed welding electrode that becomes live when the welding equipment is in use poses obvious electric shock hazard to the welding worker.

(a) (b)

(c)

The type of arc welding equipment required and the electricity source available. The working environment, such as ventilation and lighting of the workplace, working space restricting body movement and the possibility of slag or spark reaching to or coming into contact with the combustion materials. Particulars of the work, such as duration and frequency of the welding operation, operation on work pieces and vessels with possible combustible/flammable residues and size, shape, weight and construction of the work pieces.

Should be conducted by a competent person with the appropriate knowledge and experience and the relevant training to enable him to assess the risks arising from the welding operation. The person should have appropriate understanding of the welding operation as well as good knowledge of the safe practices and safety measures required. The operation of welding should be reviewed regularly by a competent person. Alert with the situation while weld operation is running.