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Presented by. 1.MRIDUL KANTI DAS (15) 2.ABHISHEK KUMAR(40) 3.CHANDAN KUMAR SINGH(03) 4. DIWAKAR KR. MAHTO(35) 5.RAKESH KUMAR(14) 6.VINAY JHA(28) 7.VISHAL RAI(49) Guided by: Mr D.Mishra

1. 2. 3. ABSTRACT Introduction The Solar Chimney a. Parts of the Solar Chimney i. Collector ii. Turbines iii. Chimney b. Working Principles of Solar Chimney c. Technology The Energy Storage In the Collector Cost Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion References

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

In many parts of the world,there is a growing awareness that some alternative energy sources could have an important role to play in the production of electricity. However,only the solar energy represents totally nonpolluting inexhaustible energy resource that can be utilized economically to supply Mans energy needs for all time .

There are lots of methods of using the solar energy , and the Solar Chimney is one of them, which can be seen below.

Solar Chimney

Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by means of a turbine. Heat from the sun is used to heat air and hence to run a turbine. This concept leads to the unbelievable invention named The solar chimney. The solar energy represents totally nonpolluting inexhaustible energy resource that can be utilized economically to supply Mans energy needs for all time.

2.The Solar Chimney

In 1978, it was suggested by Professor Schlaich of Stuttgart university that power could be produced by a hybrid solar system. The solar chimney system consists of three parts; The collector , turbines and the chimney.

2.a. Parts of the Solar Chimney

The Collector Collector is the part , which is used to produce hot air by green-house effect. It is usually 5-6 meters high and covers a very large area about thousands of m as seen in fgure.



Since glazing increases the mass of the roof, glazed collectors should have stronger rods and should be attached as in figure below.

The glazed collector roof of Solar Chimney

There is no limitation for the surface area. The larger the area, the more energy generated from the chimney. There should be slightly increasing height towards to the chimney in order to obtain minimum friction loss. Covering materials may be different, such as; glass, plastic film or glazed collector.The most efficient one is glazed collector.It can convert up to 70% of irratiated solar energy into heat a typical annual average is 50%. Also, with proper maintenance, its life span can easily be 60 years or more.

2.a.ii. Turbines Turbines, seen in figure , are used to convert air current to the mechanical energy.

Turbine for Solar Chimney Power Station

Turbines are placed horizontally in chimney, vertically in the collector.In order to obtain maximum energy from the warmed air,turbines blades should cover all the cross-sectional area of the chimney. To do this , one big turbine or a few small turbines should be used in chimney, as can be seen from the figure.

Turbine with large diameter

Small turbines

2.a.iii. The chimney The most important part of the plant is the chimney,seen in fgure . It acts as a thermal engine. Since the friction loss is minimum in the chimney it likes a pressure tube.


The chimney

Longer the chimneys height, the more the energy produced from the chimney. The efficiency of the chimney is not depend on the amount of the temperature rising, but depends on the outside temperature.
Thus, efficiency directly proportional to the ratio between the height of the chimney and the outside temperature.



2.b. Working principles of Solar Chimney:POWER GENERATION

Heated air-->rises up-->gains momentum -->flows through chimney-->rotates turbine.

Working principles of Solar Chimney:ROOM VENTILATION

The exchange and movement of air cools the building by driving heat to the outside. The process by which this movement of air occurs is called natural convection. The heated air escapes out the top of the chimney and is replaced by air from the outside (through windows or vents elsewhere in the building). Solar chimneys are most effective in hotter climates with high cooling load.

The basic features of a solar chimney include: > A narrow configuration (like a chimney) with a heat absorbing material on the inside behind a glazed northfacing front. > A chimney which terminates above the roof level. > A vent at the top of the chimney that heated air to exhaust without being overcome by the prevailing wind.

Since air is heated, it starts to rise up and move towards to chimney,seen in fgure . Also, it gains velocity. Heated air enters the chimney placed at the center of the roof and creates an up draught there. Inside the chimney, turbines with electric generator,produce electricity.

Schematic seen of the solar chimney

Collector Efficiency

Heat Output
Collector Area
Mass flow

Solar Radiation
The temperature differences between the collector and out flow
Specific heat capacity of the air Air speed at collector outflow

Chimney cross-section area

Specific dendsity of air at temperature To + T at collector outflow

2.c. Technology
Solar chimneys are large-scale power plants with an output of 5 to 200 MW each. A 100 MW plant will produce about 750 GWh/year at 2.300 kWh/m global horizontal radiation . For that the glass roof has to be several kilometers in diameter and the tube has to be as high as possible to achieve a large annual output .

Since collectors produce hot air by green house effect, to produce electric during the night, tight water-filled tubes are placed under the roof, as seen in fgure.
Day Night

3.The Energy Storage In the Collector

Fig. 12 Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using water-filled black tubes [6].

The water heats up during the daytime and emits its heat at night. These tubes are filled only once, no further water is needed, because the tubes remain closed after filling process. The volume of water in the tubes is selected to correspond to a water layer with a depth of 5 to 20 cm depending on the desired power output.

Solar chimney power stations are particularly suitable for generating electricity in deserts and sun-rich wasteland. It provides electricity 24 hour a day from solar energy alone. No fuel is needed. It needs no cooling water and is suitable in extreme drying regions.

It is particularly reliable and a little trouble-prone compared with other power plants. The materials concrete, glass and steel necessary for the building of solar chimney power stations are everywhere in sufficient quantities. No ecological harm and no consumption of resources.

Some estimates say that the cost of generating electricity from a solar chimney is 5x more than from a gas turbine. Although fuel is not required, solar chimneys have a very high capital cost . The structure itself is massive and requires a lot of engineering expertise and materials to construct .

Solar chimney power stations could make important contributions to the energy supplies in Africa, Asia and Australia, because there is plenty of space and sunlight available there. It is very important for the future, because our resources are limited, except our sun.

1. Williams,J.R.(1977).Technology and applications;Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc. 2. A brief history of solar chimney.Retrieved 10.11.2004 from; http://www.visionengineer.com/env/solar_flue .shtml 3. Taylor,R.H.(1983).Alternative energy Sources;Adam Hilger Ltd,p.292. 4. Solar Chimney-Technology.Retrieved 10.11.2004 from; http://www.sbp.de./de/html/projects/solar/auf wind/pages_auf/techno.htm.

5. Schlaich,J.(1995).The Solar Chimney;Edition Axel Menges 6. Solar Chimney-Principle.Retrieved 10.11.2004 from; http://www.sbp.de./de/html/projects/sol ar/aufwind/pages_auf/principl.htm. 7. Solar Chimney Power Plant versus Wind from the Sun Power Plant.Retrieved 10.11.2004 from; http://www.windfromthesun.com/questi ons.htm 8. Solar Chimney-Energy cost.Retrieved 10.11.2004 from; http://www.sbp.de/de/html/projects/sol ar/aufwind/pages_auf/enprocos.htm