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BIOLOGY

The Cell Cycle

Genomethe total complement of an organisms genes Chromatinnetwork of DNA and fibrils in a nucleus that is not dividing. Chromosomestructure of DNA that transmits genetic information to the next generation. Chromatidstwo copies of the same chromosome attached together Centromereconstriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are held together.

Key Terms

Chromatin in a developing salamander ovum

Chromosome Numbers
Somatic cells (body cells) diploid (2N) 2 of each chromosome Gametes (sex cells) haploid (N) 1 of each chromosome Examples: Body cells Sex Cells
Humans Fern Drosophila Dog 46 1,262 8 78 23 631 4 39

Mitosis
A diploid cell divides to produce diploid daughter cells. Ensures that each daughter cell contains the exact same chromosomes as the original mother cell. Mitosis can occur in either diploid or haploid cells; maintaining either a 2N or N chromosome number.

Interphase
Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase.
G1 - organelles double; accumulates materials for DNA synthesis. S - DNA replication. G2 - Cell synthesizes proteins necessary for cell division.

Prophase & Prometaphase


Prophase
Chromatin has condensed. Nucleolus disappears. Nuclear envelope disintegrates. Spindle begins to assemble.

Prometaphase
Kinetochores develop on centromere.
Attach sister chromatids to spindle fibers.

Figure 12.5 The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell: G2 phase; prophase; prometaphase

Metaphase and Anaphase


Metaphase
Chromosomes, attached to kinetochore fibers, are in alignment at center of cell.

Anaphase
Sister chromatids split, producing daughter chromosomes.
Daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles.

Telophase

Telophase

Spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around the daughter chromosomes.
Chromosomes become diffuse chromatin again. Nucleolus appears in each daughter nucleus.

Cytokinesis
Animal Cells:
Cleavage furrow begins as anaphase nears completion. Deepens when a contractile ring forms a constriction between the two daughter cells. Mitosis without cytokinesis results in a multinucleated cell.

Cytokinesis
Plant Cells:
Rigid cell wall surrounding plant cells does not permit cytokinesis by furrowing.
Begins with formation of a cell plate which eventually becomes new plasma membrane between the daughter cells.

Figure 12.9 Mitosis in a plant cell

Figure 12-09x Mitosis in an onion root

Cell Cycle Control


Protein (cyclin) increases & decreases as cell cycle continues.
Must be present for the cell to proceed from the G2 stage to the M stage and from G1 stage to S stage.
Allows time for any damage to be repaired.

The Cell Cycle and Cancer


Cancer is a growth disorder that results from the mutation of genes regulating the cell cycle.
Lack differentiation. Have abnormal nuclei. Form tumors. Loss of contact inhibition. Undergo metastasis
(spread).

Apoptosis
Often defined as programmed cell death.
Cells routinely harbor enzymes (caspases) necessary for apoptosis to occur.
Ordinarily held in check by inhibitors, but can be unleashed by internal or external signals.

Mitosis increases and apoptosis decreases the number of somatic cells.