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Dissociation equation :

PbI2 Pb2+ + 2 I

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : I Dark purplish solid with some pungent brown gas is released.

Cation : Pb2+ Grey solid is deposited at the negative electrode.

Observation

Half equation Process occur

2 I I2 + 2 e
Oxidation

Pb2+ + 2 e Pb
Reduction

Dissociation equation :
KBr K+ + Br H2O H+ + OH

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; Br Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved ignite the glowing wooden splinter.
4 OH O2 + 2 H2O + 2e

Cation : H+ ; K+ Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved resulted a pop sound to be heard when put close to a burning wooden splinter

Observation

Half equation Process occur

2 H+ + 2 e H2
Reduction

Oxidation

Dissociation equation :
FeCl2 Fe2+ + 2 Cl H2O H+ + OH

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; Cl Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved ignite the glowing wooden splinter.
4 OH O2 + 2 H2O + 2e

Cation : H+ ; Fe2+

Observation

Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved resulted a pop sound to be heard when put close to a burning wooden splinter 2 H+ + 2 e H2
Reduction

Half equation Process occur

Oxidation

Dissociation equation :
CuCl2 Cu2+ + 2 Cl H2O H+ + OH

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; Cl Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved ignite the glowing wooden splinter.
4 OH O2 + 2 H2O + 2e

Cation : H+ ; Cu2+ Brown colour solid deposited around the electrode, resulting the blue colour of CuSO4 faded with time.

Observation

Half equation Process occur

Cu2+ + 2 e Cu
Reduction

Oxidation

Dissociation equation :
Pb(NO3)2 Pb2+ + 2NO3 H2O H+ + OH

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; conc. NO3 Cation : H+ ; conc. Pb2+ Bubbling is observed. Colourless gas evolved ignite the glowing wooden splinter.
4 OH O2 + 2 H2O + 2e

Observation

Grey solid is deposited around the electrode.

Half equation Process occur

Pb2+ + 2 e Pb
Reduction

Oxidation

Dissociation equation :
AgNO3 Ag+ + NO3 H2O H+ + OH

Set up of the apparatus

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; NO3Silver electrode corroded and become thinner.

Cation : H+ ; Ag+ Silver colour solid deposited around the electrode,

Observation

Half equation Process occur

Ag Ag+ + e Oxidation

Ag+ + e Ag
Reduction

6.4 Application of Electrolysis in Industrial 6.4.1 Extraction of aluminium from its ore (bauxite) When aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite Al2O3 (l) 2 Al3+ (l) + 3 O2 (l)

Electrolyte mixture is then placed in carbon-lined iron vat (cathode). The heating effect of the electric current melts the electrolyte mixture, producing Na+, Al3+, O2- and F- ions

During electrolysis, aluminium is preferentially discharged at the cathode. Cathode : Al3+ + 3 e Al At the anode, oxygen is released instead of fluorine. Anode : 2 O2 O2 + 4 e

In industrial process, chlorine gas, together with sodium metal, is prepared using molten sodium chloride (brine) using mercury-cathode cell.
Half equation occur at cathode

Na+ + e- Na
Half equation occur at anode

2Cl- Cl2 + 2 e-

Mercury is specially used to attract the sodium formed in cathode and form an alloy named amalgam This method is not environment friendly as the mercury used is poisonous.

6.4.2 Purification of copper in industries Pure copper can only be obtained under such method. The set-up of purifying copper is shown in diagram below.

Electrodes Ions gathered

Positive terminal

Negative terminal

Anion : OH ; SO42-

Cation : H+ ; Cu2+

Observation

Copper electrode corroded at anode and become thinner.

Brown colour solid deposited around the electrode, The blue colour of CuSO4 remain unchanged.
Cu2+ + 2 e Cu Reduction

Half equation Process occur

Cu Cu2+ + 2 e Oxidation

6.4.3 Electroplating method. Electroplating method is one way of applying these finishes. Forks, spoons, and jewellery are often electroplated to give the objects the appearance of silver or gold while still keeping the cost of the objects low.

At anode
Observation : silver plate is corroded. Half equation : Ag Ag+ + e At cathode Observation : silver is coated around the bracelet

Half equation : Ag+ + e Ag

6.5 Chemical Cell As mentioned early in the topic, there are 2 types of conversion of energies. In electrolytic cell, the conversion energy takes place chemical electrical where . energy is converted to . energy. In this sub-topic, the conversion takes place where CHEMICAL energy to ELECTRICAL energy. This conversion of energy is known as CHEMICAL CELL (sometimes called as voltaic cell) The following experiment shows basically how a simple chemical cell works.

Electrical energy produced. Voltage decrease as reactant decrease with time Magnesium oxidise to form magnesium ion, while hydrogen ion reduced to H2

No chemical reaction take place No chemical reaction take place

Discussion : A chemical cell basically worked when there is a difference between the electrodes potential of 2 different metals. Each metal possessed its own electrode potential. When 2 different metals contact each other, they shall be a potential difference between the metals in the form of electromotive forces (e.m.f.) in the form of voltage. In fact, electrochemical series is build base on the electrode potential possessed by each metal. Table below shows the value of the electrode potential of some metals in the electrochemical series

Metal

Ag+

Cu2+
+0.34

H+
0.00

Pb2+
0.14

Sn2+
0.23

Fe2+
0.44

Zn2+
0.76

Al3+
1.66

Mg2+
2.38

Na+
2.71

K+
2.91

Eo (V) +0.80

If both are the same metal, theres no difference in electrode potential, thus theres no e.m.f. [Exp 2]

Higher the position in electrochemical series, the more stable it is as a positive ion. Since magnesium has higher position than copper, so magnesium tends to donate electron to form a more stable magnesium ion.

Half equation : Mg (s) Mg2+ (aq) + 2 e- [Magnesium corroded]

This is also supported by the deflection of needle where the deflection move to right (where electron is donated by magnesium). Since magnesium donate electrons, negative terminal (anode) of the cell. it is the In the solution now contain Mg2+ (from Mg) ; Na+ (from salt) and H+ (from aqueous solution), so theres a selection of ions to be discharge in copper electrode, which act as positive terminal (cathode) . of the cell as it tend to receive electron from magnesium plate. In cathode, one with lower position in ECS will be selected, so hydrogen will be selected.

Half equation :

2 H+ (aq) + 2e- H2 (g) [hydrogen gas evolve at copper electrode] In chemical cell, when the anode and cathode are recognised, an overall equation can be written by : Mg (s) Mg2+ (aq) + 2 e[electrons are donated]

Anode

Cathode :
Overall

2 H+ (aq) + 2e- H2 (g)

[electrons are received]

: Mg (s) + 2 H+ (g) Mg2+ (aq) + H2 (g)

In short, when there are 2 different metals, the higher position metal anode in ECS will be the of the cell (donate electrons) while the metal with the lower position in ECS will be the of the cathode cell (receive electrons)

6.6 Daniel Cell A Daniel cell is typical chemical cell that is builds by 2 different metals immerse in each of its aqueous solution separately connected by wires and salt bridge or porous pot as shown in the diagram.
V
V

Salt bridge contains inert ion or salts that does not react with electrolyte such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride or sulphuric acid. The function of the salt bridge / porous pot in the Daniel cell To complete the chemical cell To separate between the 2 chemical cells. Similar to the simple chemical cell, the electrodes are divided to anode and cathode where
Anode Cathode

Electrode Function

To donate electrons

To receive electrons Positive terminal

Terminal

Negative terminal