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A.

AVINASH KUMAR

What Is Modulation?
A technique in Telecom transmission system where by

an electromagnetic signal (the modulating signal) is encoded into one or more of the characteristics of the another signal (carrier signal) to produce a third signal (modulated signal). Whose properties are matched to the characteristics of medium over which it is transmitted. OR
Modulation is the process of superimposing the

modulating signal over a high frequency RF carrier.

Modulation
When the carrier signal is modified from a normalized state, it

is called a modulated signal.


Signal modulation is the process of modifying the

characteristics of a carrier wave signal using an information signal (such as voice or data).
The characteristics that can be changed include amplitude

modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), or phase modulation (PM).

Modulation is utilized to send an information bearing signal over long distances.


When a carrier signal is modulated, the frequency changes

above and below its reference frequency.

The difference between the upper and lower maximum

frequency changes is called the bandwidth.


A carrier wave signal can be carried by wire, fiber, or

electromagnetic waves transmitted through the air (radio).

NEED OF MODULATION
To reduce the noise and interference.
Multiplexing and de multiplexing. To decrease the Antenna size. To transmit the audio signal to far distance.

TYPES OF MODULATIONS
Analog modulation.

Digital modulation

Analog modulation:
The aim of analog modulation is to transfer the analog

low pass signal over a digital band pass channel. (or) the modulation which deals with the analog signals.

ANALOG SIGNAL: An analog signal is any variable

signal which is continuous in both time and amplitude

Types of Analog modulations


Amplitude modulation.(A.M)
Frequency modulation.(F.M) Phase modulation.(P.M)

Amplitude modulation
The first amplitude modulated signal was transmitted in 1901

by a Canadian engineer named Reginald Fessenden.

Amplitude modulation involves the transferring of information

onto a carrier signal by varying the amplitude of the carrier signal.


AM was one of the first and simplest forms of modulation.

Below fig shows an example of an AM modulated radio signal

(on bottom) where the high of the radio carrier signal is change by using the signal amplitude or voltage of the audio signal (on top).

Examples of amplitude modulation (AM) AM radio broadcasting single-sideband transmission systems vestigial-sideband systems frequency-division multiplexing time-division multiplexing phase-discrimination multiplexing

reduced-carrier systems.

Advantages of AM
It is simple to implement.
It can be demodulated using a circuit consisting of very few

components.
AM receivers are very cheap as no specialized components are

needed.

Disadvantages of AM
It is not efficient in terms of its power usage.
It is not efficient in terms of its use of bandwidth, requiring a

bandwidth equal to twice that of the highest audio frequency.


It is prone to high levels of noise because most noise is

amplitude based and obviously AM detectors are sensitive to it.

Frequency Modulation
Frequency modulation is a type of modulation where the

frequency of the carrier is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. The amplitude of the carrier remains constant.

FM was invented in the year 1936 by Armstrong.

Below fig shows as the modulation signal (audio wave)

increases in voltage, the frequency of the radio carrier signal increases. As the voltage decreases, the frequency of the carrier signal also decreases.

Advantages of FM
The noise power decrease as signal power increase so the

signal to noise ratio of frequency modulation is high. Frequency modulation uses line of sight communications so the range of communication is around our planet. Same frequency channels can be used around the world, as frequency modulation is having number of sidebands. Frequency modulation requires less radiated power.

Disadvantages of FM
The bandwidth requirement for frequency modulation is very

high as compared with amplitude modulation.

Transmitter and Receiver are more complex in frequency

modulation.

Phase modulation
Phase modulation is a modulation process where the phase of

the carrier signal is modified by the amplitude of the information (e.g., audio or data) signal.
Frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM) both

of which are commonly known as angle modulation.

PM by itself and in combination with AM is used extensively

in modern data-communications systems.

Both FM and PM are used extensively in communications

systems.

Fig below shows a sample of phase modulation (PM). In this

diagram, a digital signal (on top) creates a phase modulated carrier signal (on bottom).

As the digital signal voltage is increased, the frequency of the

radio signal changes briefly so the phase (relative timing) of the transmitted signal advances compared to the unmodulated radio carrier signal.

When the voltage of the digital signal is decreased, the

frequency changes again so the phase of the transmitted signal retards compared to the unmodulated radio carrier signal.

Advantages of PM
Improved signal to noise ratio.
Less radiated power. Only 1 frequency used. Easy to detect loss of carrier

Disadvantages of PM
Complex circuitry required to generate and detect phase

changes We need frequency multiplier to increase phase modulation index

Digital Modulation
The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit

stream over an analog band pass channel. (Or) The modulation deals with the digital signal.
DIGITAL SIGNAL: An electronic signal transmitted as

binary code that can be either the presence or absence of current, high and low voltage (or) short pulses at a particular frequency.

Types of Digital Modulation


Pulse code modulation.
Delta pulse code modulation. Adaptive delta code modulation.

Pulse code modulation


PCM is a digital representation of an analog signal

where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals of time.
They are three steps to continue DIGITAL

MODULATION, they are:


Sampling. Quantization. Coding.

SAMPLING
It is the process of measuring the analog signal at

different instants of time. QUANTIZATION: Approximating the sampled signal with an accurate value. CODING: Representing the quantizing signal with binary form i.e 0 and 1s.

Based on the sampling theorem


Each analog sample is assigned a binary code
Analog samples are referred to as pulse amplitude

modulation (PAM) samples

The digital signal consists of block of n bits, where each n-bit number is the amplitude of a PCM pulse

DELTA PCM
DPCM encodes the PCM varies at difference between the current and

previous value.

Analog input is approximated by staircase function


interval

Moves up or down by one quantization level () at each sampling

The bit stream approximates derivative of analog signal (rather

than amplitude)

1 is generated if function goes up 0 otherwise

Two important parameters

Size of step assigned to each binary digit () Sampling rate

Accuracy improved by increasing sampling rate However, this increases the data rate

Example Of

Delta Modulation

Advantage of DM over PCM is the simplicity of its

implementation.

ADAPTIVE DELTA PCM


It is variant of DPCM that varies the size of the

quantized step, to allow further reduction of required bandwidth for a given SNR. Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation, a form of pulse code modulation (PCM) that produces a digital signal with a lower bit rate than standard PCM. ADPCM produces a lower bit rate by recording only the difference between samples and adjusting the coding scale dynamically to accommodate large and small differences.

There are many different modulation techniques that

can be utilized in a modem. These techniques are:


Amplitude shift key modulation (ASK) Frequency shift key modulation (FSK) Binary-phase shift key modulation (BPSK) Quadrature-phase shift key modulation (QPSK) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

Demodulation
Demodulators are devices or systems that can recover original

information signal from a carrier signal. The output from the unit may be in baseband (original information) composite form.

Fig below shows how a demodulator converts a modulated

carrier signal into an information signal.


This diagram shows that the demodulator compares the

modulated carrier (carrier with the changes) to an unmodulated carrier (pure carrier signal) to produce the information signal (representing only the changes of the carrier signal).