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Special Blasting Technique

Trim and Pre Split Blasting

DRILL AND BLAST SECTION MINING SERVICES DEPARTMENT PT KALTIM PRIMA COAL

Reasons for Pit Wall Damage


Block Heaving
Load Release

No Free Face Prevents Burden Movement

Shear Failure

Gas Driven Crack Extension

Compressive and Tensile Failure

Subdrill Damages Crests

Areas Concern in Wall Control Blasting


Selection of best wall control blast method Design blast based on geology and past history to minimize wall damage Development of blast pad area prior to drilling to provide suitable blast area Optimal implementation of chosen design to minimize variation from design Fragmentation and muck pile looseness

Wall Control Blasting Options


KPC has two main tools for controlling the strength and stability of interim and final pit walls: Trim Blasts Pre split Blasts

Trim Blasts
The aim is to
Break rock mass to the pre-split or final wall line
Not to break through the line! Clearly, a good pre-split with a poor trim blast will not work A poor pre-split with a good trim blast also will not work!

If pre-splitting is not appropriate, trim blasting may still provide a good final wall

Trim Blasts
There are some Rules of Thumb to try in a new situation Stand-off from pre-split should be about half the hole burden (i.e. 4m, KPC uses 3m) Last row spacing should be half the main spacing (OK) Burden between last (buffer) row and 2nd last row should be 3/4 the main burden (5.2m, KPC uses 6m or 6.6m)

Trim Blasts
Optimum burden relief for a detonating hole requires Sufficient number of neighbouring holes to detonate

Free face be close enough to the next hole to fire


Enough time before this hole fires to create a free face it can use

These requirements can be investigated using JKSimBlast

Trim Blasts
Adequate burden relief is important in any production blast and absolutely critical in trim blasts.

If any part of the blast is over-confined, material will not move properly
This will over-confine the blastholes behind - it gets worse! In a small blast like a trim blast, this will not correct itself - damage will penetrate behind the pre-split or final wall line.

Trim Blasts
Issues to think about in dynamic burden relief
1. Drill Pad Preparation
Free faces this means
shovel digs back to hard material pad preparation dozing does not push loose material over the free face

Accurate hole locations Accurate crest burdens Blastholes located to follow crest line Drilling accuracy

2. Correct design implementation

3. Correct tie-up

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

Revised design using vertical presplit


17m 6.6m 6 m 8 m

Trim Holes Production Holes

20 m

70o Standoff 1m 40m


3 m 6 m 8 m

20 m

10m

Presplit Holes

20 m

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

Revised design using vertical presplit


17m 6.6m 6 m

8 m

20 m

70o Standoff 1m 40m


3 m 3 m 6 m 6 m 8 m 8 m

20 m

10m 20 m

This will damage crest and cause early failures

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

Revised design using vertical presplit


17m 6.6m 6 m 8 m

15 m 15 m 15 m

70o Standoff 1m 40m


3 m 3 m 6 m 6 m 8 m 8 m

10m

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

3m 6m

8m

Upper Bench

Production rows:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Max 4 rows Burden = 7 m Spacing = 8 m Depth = 11.5m Spacing direction must be parallel to presplit row Blast area must have a free face without broken material in front parallel to presplit row

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

3m 6m

8m

Upper Bench

3.5m Stemming

Trim row:
1. 2. 3. 4. Burden = 3.0m Spacing = 4.6m Depth = 11.5m Charge is as shown in diagram
2.0m Air Deck 4.0m Charge

2.0m Air Deck

Blast Plan Showing Tie-in for Upper Bench


Presplit Row Trim Row

Production Rows

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

3m 6m

8m

Lower Bench
3.5m Stemming

First Trim row:


1. 2. 3. 4. Burden = 6.0m Spacing = 4.6m Depth = 9.0m Charge is as shown in diagram

1.75m Air Deck

2.75m Charge

1.0m Air Deck

Pit AB Phase 2 Trim & Presplit Design, 20m Benches

3m 6m

8m

Lower Bench
3.5m Stemming

Second Trim row:


1. 2. 3. 4. Burden = 3.0m Spacing = 4.6m Depth = 9.0m Charge is as shown in diagram

1.75m Air Deck

2.75m Charge

1.0m Air Deck

Blast Plan Showing Tie-in for Lower Bench


Presplit Row Trim Rows

Production Rows

Presplit Blast

A line of closely spaced blast holes drilled at the limits line. Often smaller diameter than production blastholes. Much lower charge density laterally or vertically decoupled. Fired before the main blast; usually with no delay between holes.

Why Pre-split?

Increases wall stability. Defines wall position, ensures consistent front row burdens in strip mining. Channels blast gases away from rock mass, reducing backbreak and damage. Others (eg. limits dilution, aids equipment).

Proposed Mechanism Tensile Failure from Compressive Shock

Compressive Shock

Compressive Shock

Blasthole Resultant Tensile Stress

Blasthole Tensile Stress Zone

Well Developed Presplit Line

Presplit Does Not Perform in Non-competent or Fractured Rock

Borehole

Adverse Jointing makes Presplit Impossible

How do we start?
The engineering variables (really variable)

Hole diameter. Hole spacing. Total energy (explosive mass / product). Energy distribution (charge positions, decoupling).

What Else?
Rock mass variables (not so variable!)
Compressive strength. Tensile strength. Discontinuities (a.k.a. Joints). Must not under-estimate joints!

A successful pre-split blast hole will


Generate sufficient pressure to cause tensile failure (the split) NOT generate too much pressure so that collateral crushing is avoided (ideally pressure is less than the compressive strength) Be close enough to its neighbour to form a continuous split

KPC Presplit Calculations


Explosive
VOD (m/s) Density (g/cc) Cartridge dia (mm) Borehole dia (mm) Borehole length (m) Detonation pressure (GPa) Explosion pressure (GPa) Borehole pressure (MPa)

DynoSplit
4300 1.1

32
200 20 5.1 2.5 72

Presplit Charge One String DynoSplit 32mm diameter

Parameter
Hole Spacing (m) Bench Height (m) Explosive Specific Charge (kg/m) Uncharged Hole Length (m) Doubled Over Length (m) No of Charge Strings per Hole 2 Pre-Split Powder Factor (kg/m )

Value
3 20 0.88 1 2 1 0.31

Orientation

Typical Presplit Design


50% Normal Burden 75% Normal Burden 50% Normal Spacing

Presplit Row

Alternative Presplit Charges

Airdeck & stem or leave open

Usually Airdeck & stem

Single small charge

Multiple small deck charges

Multiple decoupled charges

Continuous low density charge

Continuous decoupled charge

When it Works!
PreSplit sandstone wall at Panel 8, Hatari, 1999.

When it Works!

Unfavourable Structure

Unfavourable Material