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Chapter 3

3.1 Magnetic Effect of a Currentcarrying conductor


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Electromagnets

Magnet:
Show magnetism (attract metal) over a long period

Electromagnet:
Temporary magnet Only show magnetism while current flowing

An electromagnet can be made by sending an electric current through a coil of wire wound around an iron core. 2

Switch on
Current flows Magnetic field is produced ( which is produced by current ) Wire / coil is magnetised Attracts pins (metal)

Magnetic field Switch on

_
coil

pins
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Switch off
Magnetic field

Switch off

_
coil

pins

Magnetic Field Pattern


can be represented by field lines that show the shape of the field. magnetic field lines which are close together represent a strong field. the field direction is defined as the direction indicated by a compass needle placed in the magnetic field.

Direction can be determined using

Right-hand grip rule


or called Amperes right-hand grip rule Thumb:

direction of current

4 fingers:
direction of magnetic field

Straight wire Circular coil

Thumb: magnetic field 4 fingers: current

Solenoid
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Pattern & Direction of Magnetic Field


Bar magnet Electromagnet

Straight wire Circular coil Solenoid

Pattern & Direction of Magnetic Field a) bar magnet

Pattern & Direction of Magnetic Field of electromagnet

Experiment :
To study the pattern and direction of the magnetic field in a

Straight wire Circular coil Solenoid Pattern: see pattern of iron (line? Circular?) Direction: direction of compass
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b) Straight wire
+
Pattern: Circular Closer if near to the wire ( stronger strength of magnetic field ) Direction: Clockwise

_
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Straight wire
_ + Pattern: Circular Closer if near to the wire ( stronger strength of magnetic field ) Direction: Anti-Clockwise

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c) Circular coil

_
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Circular coil

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Anticlockwise

d) Solenoid
Clockwise

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Solenoid
Clockwise

Anticlockwise

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Compare
pattern & direction of magnetic field of a

bar magnet with a solenoid


Bar magnet

Solenoid

They are the same !


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Factors that affect the strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet


Turns

of coil Current Type of iron core

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The strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet increases when


The

number of turns of coil increases The current flows increases The soft iron core is used
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Application of Electromagnet

Electric Bell

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When the bell push is pressed, a current flows in the coils of the electromagnet, causing it to be magnetized. The magnetized electromagnet attracts the softiron armature, causing the hammer to strike the gong. The movement of the armature breaks the contact and causes the electromagnet to lose it magnetism. The light spring pulls the armature back, remaking the contact and completing the circuit again. The cycle is repeated so long as the bell push is pressed and continuous ringing occurs. 22

Magnetic Relay Circuit Breaker Telephone Ear-piece

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