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PH0101 Unit 2 Lecture 6 Klystron Oscillator Reflex Klystron Traveling Wave Tube Biological effect of microwaves

PH0101

Unit 2 Lecture 6

Klystron Oscillator
A klystron is a vacuum tube that can be used either as a generator or as an amplifier of power, at microwave frequencies.

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Two cavity Klystron Amplifier

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Applications
As power output tubes 1. in UHF TV transmitters 2. in troposphere scatter transmitters 3. satellite communication ground station 4. radar transmitters
As power oscillator (5 50 GHz), if used as a klystron oscillator

PH0101

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Reflex Klystrons
The reflex klystron has been the most used source of microwave power in laboratory applications.

PH0101

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Construction
A reflex klystron consists of an electron gun, a cavity with a pair of grids and a repeller plate as shown in the above diagram. In this klystron, a single pair of grids does the functions of both the buncher and the catcher grids. The main difference between two cavity reflex klystron amplifier and reflex klystron is that the output cavity is omitted in reflex klystron and the repeller or reflector electrode, placed a very short distance from the single cavity, replaces the collector electrode.

PH0101

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Working
The cathode emits electrons which are accelerated forward by an accelerating grid with a positive voltage on it and focused into a narrow beam. The electrons pass through the cavity and undergo velocity modulation, which produces electron bunching and the beam is repelled back by a repeller plate kept at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. On return, the electron beam once again enters the same grids which act as a buncher, therby the same pair of grids acts simultaneously as a buncher for the forward moving electron and as a catcher for the returning beam.

PH0101

Unit 2 Lecture 6

Reflex Klystron oscillator

PH0101

Unit 2 Lecture 6

Working
The feedback necessary for electrical oscillations is developed by reflecting the electron beam, the velocity modulated electron beam does not actually reach the repeller plate, but is repelled back by the negative voltage. The point at which the electron beam is turned back can be varied by adjusting the repeller voltage. Thus the repeller voltage is so adjusted that complete bunching of the electrons takes place at the catcher grids, the distance between the repeller and the cavity is chosen such that the repeller electron bunches will reach the cavity at proper time to be in synchronization. Due to this, they deliver energy to the cavity, the result is the oscillation at the cavity producing RF frequency.
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Performance Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Frequency: 4 200 GHz Power: 1 mW 2.5 W Theoretical efficiency : 22.78 % Practical efficiency : 10 % - 20 % Tuning range : 5 GHz at 2 W 30 GHz at 10 mW

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Applications
The reflex klystrons are used in
1. Radar receivers 2. Local oscillator in microwave receivers 3. Signal source in microwave generator of variable frequency 4. Portable microwave links 5. Pump oscillator in parametric amplifier
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Traveling Wave Tube


Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) is the most versatile microwave RF power amplifiers. The main virtue of the TWT is its extremely wide band width of operation.

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Basic structure of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT)

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Basic structure
The basic structure of a TWT consists of a cathode and filament heater plus an anode that is biased positively to accelerate the electron beam forward and to focus it into a narrow beam. The electrons are attracted by a positive plate called the collector, which has given a high dc voltage. The length of the tube is usually many wavelengths at the operating frequency. Surrounding the tube are either permanent magnets or electromagnets that keep the electrons tightly focused into a narrow beam.
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Features
The unique feature of the TWT is a helix or coil that surrounds the length of the tube and the electron beam passes through the centre or axis of the helix. The microwave signal to be amplified is applied to the end of the helix near the cathode and the output is taken from the end of the helix near the collector. The purpose of the helix is to provide path for RF signal. The propagation of the RF signal along the helix is made approximately equal to the velocity of the electron beam from the cathode to the collector

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Functioning
The passage of the microwave signal down the helix produces electric and magnetic fields that will interact with the electron beam. The electromagnetic field produced by the helix causes the electrons to be speeded up and slowed down, this produces velocity modulation of the beam which produces density modulation. Density modulation causes bunches of electrons to group together one wavelength apart and. these bunch of electrons travel down the length of the tube toward the collector.
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Functioning
The electron bunches induce voltages into the helix which reinforce the voltage already present there. Due to that the strength of the electromagnetic field on the helix increases as the wave travels down the tube towards the collector. At the end of the helix, the signal is considerably amplified. Coaxial cable or waveguide structures are used to extract the energy from the helix.
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Advantages
1. TWT has extremely wide bandwidth. Hence, it can be made to amplify signals from UHF to hundreds of gigahertz. 2. Most of the TWTs have a frequency range of approximately 2:1 in the desired segment of the microwave region to be amplified. 3. The TWTs can be used in both continuous and pulsed modes of operation with power levels up to several thousands watts.
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Performance characteristics
1. 2. Frequency of operation : 0.5 GHz 95 GHz Power outputs: 5 mW (10 40 GHz low power TWT) 250 kW (CW) at 3 GHz (high power TWT) 10 MW (pulsed) at 3 GHz Efficiency : 5 20 % ( 30 % with depressed collector)

3.

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Applications of TWT
1. 2. 3. Low noise RF amplifier in broad band microwave receivers. Repeater amplifier in wide band communication links and long distance telephony. Due to long tube life (50,000 hours against th for other types), TWT is power output tube in communication satellite. Continuous wave high power TWTs are used in troposcatter links (due to larger power and larger bandwidths). Used in Air borne and ship borne pulsed high power radars.
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4.

5.

Biological effects of microwaves


Electromagnetic radiation in the 1 mm to 1 m wavelength range (300 MHz to 300 Ghz) is referred to as microwave radiation. A part of which is known as radiofrequency (RF) radiation, which covers 0.5 MHz to 300 GHz range and is considered in the context of adverse biological effects.

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Ionizing and non ionizing radiations of electromagnetic energy

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Ionizing radiation
Ionization is a process by which electrons are stripped from atoms and molecules and this can produce molecular changes that can lead to damage in biological tissue, including effects on DNA, the genetic material. This process requires interaction with high levels of electromagnetic energy to ionize biological material, this include X-radiation and gamma radiation. The energy levels associated with RF and microwave radiations are not great enough to cause the ionization of atoms and molecules, therefore, it is a type of non-ionizing radiation.
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Non ionizing radiation


Microwave energy is non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Ionizing radiation messes up molecules, nonionizing radiation merely heats them. In general, it does not have sufficient energy to kick an electron off an atom thus producing charged particle in a body and cause biological damage. The only proven harmful effect from exposure to microwave (or RF) radiation is thermal. RF radiation can enter deep into the body and heat human organs.
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Effect of microwaves in human body


The blood vessels are dilating and the blood flow increases substantially as the thermoregulatory mechanism is activated in order to keep the body temperature constant. With rising body temperature the metabolic rate rises, which may lead to Stress-Adaptation-Fatigue Syndrome.

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Above 10 GHz (3 cm wavelength or less) heating occurs mainly in the outer skin surface. From 3 GHz to 10 GHz (10 cm to 3 cm) the penetration is deeper and heating higher .From 150 MHz to about 1 GHz (200 cm to 25 cm wavelength), penetration is even deeper and because of high absorption, deep body heating can occur. Any part of the body that cannot dissipate heat efficiently or is heat sensitive may be damaged by microwave radiation of sufficient power.
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Effects produced by the electromagnetic waves at different frequency level

Measurement of Microwave exposure


The microwave energy exposure is measured in terms of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) or PD (Power Density). SAR is the energy which is absorbed in a unit of mass or volume of the body per unit time. The standards that limit microwave exposure were set at 0.4 W/kg SAR for occupational and 0.08W/Kg for public exposure. The averaging time for determination of SAR was 6 minutes. Power density is the energy absorbed per unit area in unit time. The high power microwaves definitely cause some adverse effects in the human system
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Effects of Microwave energy


Power level Long-term effect (mW /cm2) on human body 0.01 0.1 1 5 10 Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing Accepted standard for microwave oven leakage Accepted standard for maximum continuous exposure to radiated emissions (cell phones, etc.) Summer sunlight is at this level
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Remarks

30 100 1000

You can feel heat Cataracts can be produced Pain is induced PH0101

Do you know YOUR Brain can be FRIED???


What do Microwave Ovens, Cell Phones and Cordless Phones have in common? They all emit... Dangerous Microwave Radiation! The GOOD NEWS is... with Microwave radiation you can... Boil water Cook meat Fry eggs
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The BAD NEWS is... with Microwave radiation you can... Fry Your Brain

Your head and brain heat up significantly when you talk on your cell phone or cordless phone.

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Want proof? After 15 minutes of using a cell phone, the orange, red and pink show significant, dangerous HEAT. Most heat is generated in your ear canal, which is directly connected to YOUR BRAIN

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After 15 minutes of using a cell phone WITH the BIOPRO Harmonization Chip applied to it, the green and blue colors show cool tissue.

Your head's temperature remains normal, providing you with the protection you deserve.
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Proof enough?

Some scientists estimate that you are now exposed daily to 100 million times the electromagnetic frequency (Micro wave) radiation of your grandparents. So.

AVOID FREQUENT USE OF CELL PHONES!!!

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