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Minggu 5-6

Analisis cara mengajar 1 Kerangka pelan pengajaran

1. Menghuraikan pelan kerangka satu unit pengajaran

1. Menunjukkan kesinambungan

1. Penulisan hasil pembelajaran 2. Penentuan kaedah mengajar 3. Penyediaan latihan pelajar dan pengelompokan 4. Pentaksiran 5. Pemulihan dan pengukuhan

8 Komponen utama dalam merekabentuk pengajaran UPSI 2009 (adaptasi Tyler)


1. Kenal pelajar anda, kesediaan mereka, dan konteks pembelajaran 3. Objektif (hasil pembelajaran yang sesuai

2. Guru kuasai content topik: buat analisis (i) Pengetahuan (ii) Kemahiran

8. Penilaian ( alat dan kaedah penilaian yang sah dan boleh dipercayai

4. Buat susunan unit-unit p& p secara sequentialguna Jadual Penentuan Kandungan (JPK)

7. Pilih alat bantu p & p : buku, modul, VCD, CD dan sebagainya yg sesuai

5. Pilih kaedah & teknik pengajaran & 6. Latihan murid

1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

Membuat analisis keperluan dan kesediaan murid dalam konteks pembelajaran yang akan dilaksanakan Membuat analisis kandungan kurikulum : kandungan topik yang hendak di ajar, dari segi pengetahuan di dalamnya: fakta, prosedur, klasifikasi, prinsip dan teori, dan kemahiran seperti membuat eksperimen, mencari maklumat dalam internet, menulis laporan dan sebagainya. Berdasarkan (1) dan (2) diatas guru menentukan objektif pengajaran iaitu tahap hasil pembelajaran yang realistik yang perlu dicapai oleh murid. Menyusun turutan (sequence) unit-unit pengajaran supaya beransur maju, bersambungan dan berkembang Memilih dan mengguna kombinasi pendekatan, kaedah, dan teknik pengajaran yang sesuai dengan kesediaan murid dan sifat isi kandungan topik berkenaan Membina, memilih dan mengguna alat dan media bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai untuk memudahkan proses pengajaran pembelajaran Menyedia latihan yang sesuai dan mencukupi untuk semua murid supaya pembelajaran mereka berkesan dan mencapai Masteri

Jadual Penentu Kandungan


Rancangan Pengajaran Harian
Pengetahuan

Aras taksonomi Bloom

Kefahaman

Aplikasi

Analisis

Sintesis

Penilaian

Topik 1 Topik 1 Topik 6 Topik 7 Topik 7

RPH 1 RPH 2 RPH 7

X X X X

RPH 8

Rancangan Pengajaran Harian


Pengetahuan Kefahaman

Aras taksonomi Bloom

Aplikasi

Analisis

Sintesis

Penilaian

RPH 1

Fotosintesis

Mekanisme Fotosintesis

RPH 2

Meningkatkan kadar fotosintesi

RPH 7

Punca Fotosintesi tidak cekap

RPH 8

Peningkatan kadar fotosintesis. Pengkomersilan sistem fotosintesis

Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai aras


Sebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat: Menyatkan fotosintesis? Apakah yg dimaksudkan dengan fotosintesis 2. Menerangkan mekanisma fotosintesis.- Terangkan mekanisma fotosintesis 3. Mengaplikasikan faktor-faktor yang boleh meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis (diberi situasi) untuk menangani pelbagai masalah persekitaran, bagaimanakah meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis? Prinsip faktor2 yang mempengaruhi kadar fotosintesis
1.

Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai aras


Sebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat: 4. Mengenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis ( Diberi situasi) kenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis dengan cekap. 5. Mencadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesis cadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesi 6. Menjustifikasi bagaimana sistem cadangan mereka patut dikomersialkan Bagi sistem yang anda cadangkan, justifikasi / terangkan bagaimana kenapa ia patut dikomersialkan

Bagi satu isi pelajaran tertentu, kenalpasti profil akhir pelajar (hasil akhir boleh pamerkan) yang menunjukkan mereka : Kognitif- Berpengetahuan dalam. Psikomotor- Berkemahiran dalam. Afektif- Mempunyai sikap.

1. 2. 3.

Susun atur pelan perancangan hingga ke hasil akhir dalam JPK dan boleh diuji dengan JPU

Jadual Penentu Ujian

Instructional events Pengalaman pembelajaran Aktiviti pembelajaran

Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

Set induksi (Anticipatory set or Set Introduction) Maklumkan objektif pembelajaran (Standards) Input pengajaran (Input) Permodelan (Modeling) Semak kefahaman murid (Checking for Understanding) Pantau dan ubah suai (Monitoring) Praktis terbimbing (Guided practice) Praktis bertempoh (Independent practice) Penutup (Closure)

Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)


1. Set Induksi
Sometimes called a hook to grab the students attention : actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experience of the students to the objectives of the lessons. To put students into a receptive frame of mind, to focus student attention on the lesson, to create an organizing famework for the ideas, principles or information that is follow (c.f, the teaching strategy called advanced organizers.) To extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of the example or analogy.. Used any time a different activity or new concept is to be introduced.
Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the lesson outcomes are. What specifically, should the stydent be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching. Blooms Taxonomy of Magers Educational Objectives.

2. Maklumkan
objektif pembelajaran

Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)


The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect
The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect

3. Input pengajaran

4. Permodelan

5. Semak kefahaman murid 6. Pantau dan ubah suai 7. Praktis terbimbing

Determination of whether students have got it before proceeding. It is essential that practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept / skill should be retaught before practice begins. Usually through questioning If required, reteach

An opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teachers direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needeed. Guided practice ( in class seat work). With the teacher circulating (e.g, praise, prompt and leave). Monitor students work, providing corrective feedback as necessary and assess performance of the group in determining whether the class is ready for the next instruction. Additional time for those whose aptitude calls for adorgen learning period can be provided by giving extra credit assigment supplementary.

Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)


8. Praktis bertempoh
Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be class formative testing, homework or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization : enough different contexts so that the skill / concept may be applied to any relevant situation .. Not only the context in which it was originally learned. The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned. Independent practice ( additional class time or homework) begins when students have achieved an 85 to 90% accuracy level. To insure retention and develop fluency, students practice on their own without assistance and with delayed fluency, students practice on their without assistance and with delayed feedback (eg, comments on graded paper). Five or more brief practice activities distributed over a month or more may be required to fix the new concept / skill.

Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)


9. Penutup
Penutup Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught. Any questions? No. OK, lets move on is not closure. Closure is used : to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, to help organize students learning, to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc, To reinforce the major points to be learned.. To help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possiblities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifiying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the students conceptual network

Gagnes Instructional Events Model (1988)


1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

6.
7. 8. 9.

Tarik perhatian murid Maklumkan objektif pembelajaran Imbas kembali apa yang telah dipelajari Penyampaian yang jelas Bimbing pembelajaran Dapatkan / galakan respon Beri maklumbalas Tafsir prestasi Susun atur praktis untuk tingkatkan ingat kembali dan pemindahan ke situasi lain.

Rosenshine & Stevens Intructional Functions Model (1986)


1.

2.
3.

4.

5. 6.

Semak pemahaman murid (semak kerja yang diberi sebelum ini. Ajar semula jika perlu) Ajar konten baru (beri kerangka, hurai dengan terperinci, kaitkan konten baru dengan konten yang murid telah pelajari) Praktis murid (murid diberi tugasan untuk praktis, bersoal jawab, beri maklum balas, pantau praktis, semak pemahaman murid) Maklumbalas / pembetulan ( maklum balas berterusan, perhatikan ralat-ralat yang kerap dilakukan oleh murid, terangkan semula jika perlu) Praktis bebas (pantau) Semak semula pemahaman (semak secara berkala-ajar semula jika perlu)

Prior Knowledge Whats the big deal?

Its all about memory files. Cataloging and retrieving

Way to Gather Prior Knowledge


K-W-L

Brainstorming
Anticipation Guides Agree/Disagree Statements

Dumping
Mindstorms

Fleksibiliti pengelompokan
Saling berubah-ubah mengikut kesesuaian

Grouping Strategies
Young: student choice, last name, food preferences,

birthday, color of clothes Older: goals, jobs, location, experience, familiarity with task

Pengelompokan/grouping
Keseluruhan kelas

Pasukan
Kumpulan kecil Berdua/bertiga

Individu
Satu mentor satu mentee Sistem stesyen dengan kumpulan kecil

Flexible Grouping
Homogenous/ Ability Individualized or - Cluster students of similar abilities, level, learning style, or interest. - Usually based on some type of pre-assessment extensions Heterogeneous Groups Whole Class - Different abilities, level or interest - Good for promoting creative thinking

Independent Study -Self paced learning - Teaches time management and responsibility - Good for remediation or

- Efficient way to present new content -Use for initial instruction

Differentiation Blends Several Types of Instruction


Whole-class instruction

Individual instruction
Flexible grouping Cooperative/ collaborative learning

Pelajar praktis, proses, mengaplikasikan dalam Kumpulan kecil mengikut keperluan, gaya Belajar,

The football metaphor comes from the way we think about the Lessons sequence : a narrrow. Whole class experience in the beginning, then narrowing it back as we re-gather tp process what weve learned

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia


ARAS 1 Aras 1 adalah aras yang asas dan perlu dikuasai oleh semua murid. Pada aras ini murid perlu menguasai beberapa konsep asas. Ini dapat ditunjukkan melalui objektif perlakuan ternyata murid seperti mengenal pasti, menyenaraikan, menyatakan, menamakan dan memadankan.

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran PPK


Aras 2 Aras 2 pula adalah aras yang lebih tinggi daripada Aras 1 dalam urutan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pada aras ini murid boleh menguasai beberapa perlakuan ternyata seperti menerangkan, menjelaskan, menghuraikan dan membandingkan.

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran PPK


Aras 3 Aras 3 pula adalah aras yang tertinggi dalam urutan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pada aras ini, murid mampu menguasai beberapa lagi perlakuan ternyata pada tahap yang lebih tinggi seperti merumus, membandingkan dan membezakan, menganalisis dan mencadangkan.

Ada

kemungkinan tidak semua murid berkemampuan menguasai aras 2 dan 3. walau bagaimanapun guru hendaklah meneruskan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran hingga ke aras 3 untuk semua murid. Tidak semua hasil pembelajaran mengandungi semua aras 1, 2 dan 3. Sebaliknya terdapat juga sebahagian hasil pembelajaran yang hanya setakat aras 2 sahaja. Ini kerana pada aras 2 tersebut murid telah pun dapat menguasai sepenuhnya objektif pembelajaran yang hendak disampaikan. Nilai-nilai murni dan unsur-unsur patriotisme harus diterapkan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.

Kategori objektif
1. Domain Kognitif-aspek pengetahuan.

Berbeza mengikut kompleksnya 2. Domain Afektif- sikap perasaan, emosi. Berbeza mengikut aras penghayatan 3. Domain Psikomotor-perkembangan kemahiran motor-berbeza mengikut kepakaran pelaksanaannya.

Taksonomi Pembelajaran

Types (domains) of learning objectives


Cognitive objectives

- Describe the knowledge that learners are to acquire Affective objectives - Describe the attitudes, feeling and dispositions that learners are expected to develop Psychomotor objectives - Relate to the manipulative and motor skills that learners are to master

Taxonomy / taksonomi
Principles of classification
The study of the rules and practice of classifying

Domain Kognitif (Bloom)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pengetahuan Kefahaman Aplikasi Analisis Sintesis Penilaian

( Moore menggabungkan sintesis dan penilaian menjadi aras crection)

Aras domain kognitif


Reseach over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as a hierarchy, with the exercise the last two levels. It is uncertain whether synthesis and evaluation and the same level of difficulty but use different cognitive processes. Pemikiran kreatif Sintesis Analisis Aplikasi Pemikiran kritis Penilaian

Kefahaman
Pengetahuan

Original Terms ANDERSON ET AL New Terms


Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

Creating Evaluating Analysing Understanding Remembering

Aras

Huraian deskriptif

K/Kerja

Hasil Pembelajaran
Senaraikan aras domain kognitif

Pengetahuan remember and recall factual information

At the knowledge level, the student can recognizes, defines or recall specific information. This might include remembering important names, dates, capitals or even the equation for a formula The level targets whether students understand content. Ways of demonstrating comprehension include summarizing, translating or providing examples of a concept The application level focuses on whether students can use information to solve problems.Eg. Of applicationlevel- goal include having students solve maths word and using pronounciation properly in written communication

Definisi, nyatakan, senaraikan

Kefahaman demonstrate understanding of ideas, concepts Aplikasi apply comprehension to unfamiliar situations

Huraikan terangkan

Terangkan tujuan domain kognitif

Kira, guna selesaikan

Tulis hp bagi aras2 domain kognitif

Aras domain kognitif


Aras Huraian deskriptif K/kerja Hasil Pembelajaran
Bandingkan domain kognitif dan domain afektif

Analisis Break down concepts into parts

This level involves asking students to break something down to reveal its organization and structure. Students perform analysis whwn they discuss why a short story works or when they identify the component parts of science experiment Students employ synthesis when they create a unique (for them). This might include writing a poem, painting a picture, creating a computer program

Bandingkan hubungkaitkan

Sintesis Transform, combine ideas to create something new

Reka, susun, hasilkan

Reka satu hp yang menggabungkan ketiga-tiga domian

Penilaian Think critically about ang defend a position

In the highest level of the taxonomy, students judge the value or worth of something by comparing it to a predetermined criteria.

Nilaikan, justifikasi

Nilaikan keberkesanan penulisan hp menggunakan taksonomi

Blooms Taxanomy of Learning


1.

Factual Knowledge : remember and recall factual information Define, List, State, Label, Name, Describe

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

Comprehension : demonstrate understanding of ideas, concepts, Describe, Explain, Summarize, Interpret, Illuustrate
Application : apply comprehension to unfamiliar situations, Apply, Demonstrate, Use, Compute, Solve, Predict, Construct, Modify Analysis : break down concepts into parts, Compare, Contrast, Categorize, Distinguish, Identity, Infer Synthesis : transform, combine ideas to create something new, Develop , Create, Propose, Formulate, Design, Invent Evaluation: think critically about and defend a position, Judge, Appraise, Recommend, Justify, Defend, Criticize, Evaluate These levels expect deeper conceptual understanding

Understanding Levels of Thinking using :

SOLO TAXONOMY
(after Biggs and Collis 1982)

SOLO Taxonomy

Structure of the observed learning outcome (Biggs 2003) Prestructural Unistructural Multistructural Relational Extended abstract

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1 pre-structural Here students are simply acquiring bits of unconnected information, which have no organisation and make no sense

What does it mean?


Really theres not much there. For example:

Prestuctural

2 Unistructural : Simple and obvious connections are made, but their significance is not grasped.

What does it mean?


Theres one idea there. For example :
Define Identify Do Simple Procedure

Unistructural

3 Multistructural A number of connections may be made, but the meta-connections between them are missed, as their significance for the whole.

What does it mean?


There are a number of ideas. For example :
Define Describe List Do algorithm Combine

Multistructural

4 Relational level The student is now able to appreciate the significance of the parts in relation to yhe whole.

Compare/contrast Explain causes Sequence There are a number of ideas and links are be made between these ideas Classify For example : Part/whole Relate Analogy Apply Formulate questions

What does it mean?

Relational

5 At the extend abstract level, the student is making connections not only within the given subject area,but also beyond it, able to generalise and transfer the prinsiples and ideas underlying the specific instance.

Evaluate
Theorise Generalise Predict

What does it mean? There is a range of ideas which are linked


together plus some knew or extend thinking is added

Create
Hypothesise Reflect

For example :

so, How do they match up?

Aras Domain afektif


Aras 1.Receiving (menerima) Huraian deskriptif Sedar akan sesuatu ransangan di persekitaran k/kerja Dengar, hadir Hasil pemb. Dengar penerangan berkaitan badminton.

2.Responding (memberi respon)

Tunjukkan t/t baru akibat pengalaman yang dilalui

Ikut, akur

Secara sukarela,ikut gantung jaring badminton Hadir permainan badminton tanpa dipaksa (optional badminton match) Pilih untuk beli raket sendiri

3.Valuing (menghargai)

Pamerkan tingkahlaku tertentu atau komitmen

Laksanakan ,sampaikan

4.Organization (organisasi)

Integrasikan nilai baru ke dalam nilai-nilai sedia ada dalam diri berbanding lain2 keutamaan Bertindak tekal dengan nilai baru, dikenali kerana nilai barunya

Pilih, pertimbangk an Menjadi contoh, pamerkan

5.Characterization (perwatakan)

Main badminton secara tekal 3 kali seminggu

Domain Afektif (Krathwohl)


1. Menerima (Receiving) 2. Memberi respon (Responding) 3. Menghargai (Valuing) 4. Komitmen (commitment)-menggabungkan aras 4 organisation dan aras 5characterization (moore)

Behavioral Domains
The Affective Domain (Bloom, 1964)

Emotions, feelings & values

- Receiving Willing ti listen or see - Responding Active participation - Valuing Internalize the worthiness - Organization Ability to see the value - Characterization by a value Behavior consistent with a value system

Aras domain Psikomotor (Horrow)


Aras Huraian deskriptif Eggen&Kauchak (2007). Pg91 The psychomotor taxonomy ( Harrow, 1972) Behaviors outside the conscious control of the learner Behaviors learned at an early age(eg grasping,walking) 1.Reflex movements 2.Basic fundamental movements

3.Perceptual abilities

Coordinations of muscular movements with the outside world through feedback with sense organ
The development of strength, endurance,flexibility and agility Complex physical skills (eg skipping role, shooting a basket that use the first four levels The use of our body to express feeling ideas

4.Physical abilities 5.Skilled movements

6.Non-discursive communication

Aras domain Psikomotor


Aras 1.Perceiving Huraian deskriptif Recognizing movement position or pattern k/kerja Listen observe Hasil pemb. Discover headstand movement prinsiples

2.Patterning 3.Accommodating

Reproducing movement position or pattern Using or modifying movement position or pattern Demonstrating efficient control in performing pattern Performing movement pattern in different ways Originating novel movement or movement combinations Creating unique movement pattern

Immatate Practice Adjust Modify Improve Master Design Develop Contruct Invent Create Invent

Perform headstand following modeling Use headstand in routine

4. Refining

Perform headstand with pointed toes Perform headstand in three positions Combine headstand with new skill Create new floor exercise routine involving headstand

5. Varying 6. Improving

7.Composing

Behavioral Domains
The Psychomotor Domain

Muscular, motor skills, hands-on


Readliness-willingness for an activity Observation-watches & is interested Perseption-senses & becomes able Response-practise a skill Adaptation-develops and masters a skill

Behavioral Domains
The Affective Domain (Bloom, 1964)

Emotions, feelings & values

- Receiving Willing ti listen or see - Responding Active participation - Valuing Internalize the worthiness - Organization Ability to see the value - Characterization by a value Behavior consistent with a value system

Behavioral Domains
The Psychomotor Domain

Muscular, motor skills, hands-on


Readliness-willingness for an activity Observation-watches & is interested Perseption-senses & becomes able Response-practise a skill Adaptation-develops and masters a skill

Domain Psikomotor (ringkas)


Imitasi (imitation)

Manipulasi(manipulation)
Ketepatan (precision)

Aras Domain Psikomotor


Aras Imitation Huraian deskriptif Borich (2007) pg 100-pg 91 Require learner be exposed to an observable action and them overtly imitate it. Lacks neuramuscular coordination. Behavior generally is crude and imperfect after being shown a safe method for heating a beaker of water to boiling temperature, the students will be able ti repeat the actions After being shown a freehand drawing of a triangle, the will be able to produce the drawing

Manipulation

Require the students to perform selected actions from written or verbal directions without the aid of the visual model or direct observations, as in the previous(immitation) level.students are expected to complete the action from reading or listening to instructions,although the behavior still may be performed crudely and without neuromuscular coordination.verbs are used similar to level imitation such as align,grasp,repeat,balance,hold,rest(on),follow,place,step(here) except they are performed from spoken or written instructions. 1.Based on the picture provide in the textbook,type s situation to a prospective employer using the format shown. 2.With the instruction on the handout in front of you,practice focusing your microscope until you can see the outline of the specimen.
Requires students to perform an action independent of either a visual or a written set of directions. Proficiency in reproducing the action at this level reaches a higher level of refinement.accuracy,propotion,balance and exactness in performance accompany the action. Students are expected to produce the action with control and to reduce errors to a minimum. Expressions that describe outcomes-accurately,independently,with control,with out error,profidently,with balance

Precision

Banyak mana seseorang belajar bergantung kepada Masa yang diluangkan(time spent) Masa yang diperlukan(time needed) Degree of learning = f (time spent) (time needed)

PEMBELAJARAN MASTERY
Suatu model/sistem untuk merancang dan

melaksanakan pengajaran bagi memastikan semua murid menguasai hasil pembelajaran yang dihasratkan dalam suatu unit pembelajaran sebelum berpindah ke unit pembelajaran seterusnya.

Model Pembelajaran Masteri

Ciri-ciri Pembelajaran Masteri


Hasil pembelajaran akhir perlu ditentukan. 2. Hasil pembelajaran disusun mengikut hairaki taksonomi Bloom. 3. Penilaian berasaskan Ujian Rujukan Kriteria/ taksiran formatif/ diagnostik 4. Murid perlu menguasai 80% aras masteri yang ditetapkan setiap unit pembelajaran sebelum berpindah ke unit pembelajaran yang baru
1.

.sambung
5. Latihan pembetulan/ pemulihan dilaksanakan untuk murid yang belum menguasai aras masteri. Beri masa tambahan. 6. Aktiviti pengayaan diberi untuk murid yang telah mencapai aras masteri. 7. Bahan p&p yang sesuai dengan objektif pembelajaran. 8. Aktiviti p&p hendaklah bermakna, menarik dan menyeronokkan.

Mengapa perlu Pembelajaran Masteri?


Kerana : 1. Murid mempunyai kebolehan dan keperluan yang berbeza. 2. Murid memerlukan masa dan akedah p&p yang sesuai dengan mereka untuk mencapai hasil pembelajaran yang diharapkan. 3. Murid perlu menguasai pengetahuan,kemahiran dan sikap yang diajarkan.

Susunatur pembelajaran
Tujuan pembelajaran yang terakhir sekali dinyatakan secara spesifik iaitu seorang murid yang kompeten dalam 2. Tujuan pembelajaran yang terakhir ini dianalisa untuk mengenal pasti langkah-langkah yang perlu untuk tiba ke tujuan itu 3. Langkah-langkah disusunatur untuk memudahkan perkembangan ke arah tujuan pembelajaran itu.
1.

Soalan dalam JPK


Apa yang murid patut belajar dari unit ini?

Apakah yang murid boleh buat dengan apa yang

dipelajarinya?

Penulisan hasil pembelajaran

check-list for creating topic-level learning goals


1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

Is goal expressed in terms of what the student will achieve?does it identify what students will be able to do after the topic is covered? Is the Blooms level of the aligned with your expectations for students learningis this what students will be able to do if they understand the topic at the level you want? - if you expect reasoning for why,does it convery that? - could you expect a higher level goal? Is it well-defined?is it clear how you would test achievement? Do chosen verbs have a clear meaning? Is terminology familiar/common?if not,is the terminology a goal? Not every goal can achieve the following,but it is better if you can

Hasil pembelajaran
Sebelum tamat pengajaran,dalam masa 5

minit(c),murid Tingkatan 2Z(A) dapat menghuraikan (B-aras) 10 (D) sebab berlakunya.(B-isi pelajaran) A-Audiens B-Behavior aras-isi pelajaran C-condition D-desired criteria LATIHAN-tulis satu hasil pembelajaran bagi setiap aras bagi konsep yang sama

Kesesuaian hasil pembelajaran


1.

2.
3. 4.

5.
6.

7.

Adakah ia jelas-memberi satu makna sahaja? Adakah ia boleh dicapai dalam masa yang ada? Adakah keadaan dan kriterianya sesuai? Adakah dalam turutan yang sesuai? Adakah ia selari sengan matlamat/tujuan mata pelajaran keseluruhannya dan tajuk berkenaan? Adakah selari dengan niat kurikulum? Bolehkah dikenal pasti instrumen taksiran yang sesuai?

(TIDAK LANGSUNG DISEBUT BERKAITAN

Kaedah Gronlund
Format contoh

Objektif am-memahami dan menghargai

kepelbagaian pelajar yang wujud dalam sistem pendidikan di Malaysia Hp 1-boleh mendefinisikan kepelbagaian Hp 2-boleh memberi contoh-contoh bagaimana kepelbagaian boleh. Hp 3-boleh menganalisa sejauh mana

Sebelum tamat pengajaran, pelajar boleh :

1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

Menyatakan apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan Menghuraikan jenis kecerdasan yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan Diberi contoh, pelajar boleh mengenalpasti aktivitiaktiviti yang berkaiatan dengan sesuatu kecerdasan Menghubungkait sunbangan aktiviti berteraskan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan yang manakah yang menyebabkan kejayaan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran Menghasilkan pelan pengajaran yang menggunakan aktiviti berasaskan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan

Penulisan hasil pembelajaran


Kaedah Gronlund Sebelum tamat pengajaran, dapat menghuraikan jenis kecerdasan yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan Kaedah Mager Sebelum tamat pengajaran, dalam masa 15 minit (C) pelajar Tingkatan 4 Waja (A) dapat menghuraikan (Baras) kesemua tujuh (D) jenis kecerdasan (B-isipelajaran) yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan.

A Audien

B Behavior
C Condition D Desire criteria

perkaitan matlamat hingga hasil pembelajaran [aim, goals, objective and learning outcomes]
Matlamat/tujuan panjang) Pendidikan Am(jangka masa

Objektif pengajaran/hasil pembelajaran [ Instruction objectives/learning outcome]

Spesifik

Perbezaan pernyataan tujuan dan objektif pengajaran/penerangan


Matlamat pendidikan : pelajar akan menjadi warga negara yang berpengetahuan. 2. Tujuan/Objektif Pelajar akan memadankan industri utama dengan kawasannya. 3. Hasil pembelajaran [learning outcomes] : Dalam masa 5 minit [C] bila diberi senarai kawasan industri di Malaysia[C], pelajar Ting.4 Wira [A] boleh memadamkan [B- aras] setiap industri kepada kawasan [B-isipelajaran] dengan ketepatan 90% [D]
1.

Cara Matlamat/Tujuan pendidikan


Pelajar akan 1. belajar cara membaca 2. menjalani kehidupan sihat 3. menghayati seni dan muzik 4. tahu bagaimana menyelesaikan masalah algebra 5. Berfikir dengan lebih jelas dan rasional
6.

Faham kehedak negara

Sifat matlamat/tujuan pendidikan


tidak boleh diukur atau dilihat 2. pernyataan kabur walaupun ia memenuhi hala tuju untuk pengajaran 3. skopnya luas dan jangka masa panjang BANDINGKAN faham, tahu, hargai, hayati DENGAN menyenarai, menerangkan, memadankan, menghuraikan
1.

Tidak perlu SMART


S specific [well defined]

M- measurable [ supaya boleh dipantau

perkembangannya] A- action oriented R realistic [ challenging but doable] T- time oriented [ include deadlines] Ramsey, RD [1999]. Lead follow or get out of the way LB2831.82.R36

Hasil pembelajaran
Hasil pembelajaran yang baik mempunyai EMPAT (4) ciri : 1. Berorientasikan murid 2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran 3. Adalah jelas dan boleh difahami 4. Boleh terlihat [observable]

1. Berorientasikan murid
1. Murid boleh menyelesaiakan masalah berkaitan operasi bahagi dengan menggunakan sekurang-kurangnya dua cara 2.Murid boleh menyenaraikan lima peraturan nahu yang dibincangkan dalam Bab 3 3.Bila diberi huraian mengenai bentuk kerajaan, murid boleh mengklasifikasikan bentuk kerajaan itu

1. Berorientasikan murid
Memberi kuliah Melaksanakan

berkaitan langkah asa dalam kaedah saintifik Menunjukkan kepada murid cara membaca pantas sesuatu bahan bacaan
A

penyiasatan dengan menggunakan kaedah saintifik Menulis satu sajak berkaitan patriotisma

1. Berorientasikan murid
Memberi kuliah Melaksanakan

berkaitan langkah asas dalam kaedah saintifik Menunjukkan kepada murid membaca pantas sesuatu bahan bacaan
A- aktiviti guru

penyiasatan dengan menggunakan kaedah saintifik Menulis satu sajak berkaitan patriotisma

B aktiviti murid

2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran


Diberi rajah bunga
1. Set induksi 2. Baca ms 17-22 buku

Hasil pembelajaran

yang tidak berlabel (C), dalam masa tidak lebih 2minit (C), murid Tg 1 Biru (A) dapat melabelkan (B-aras) sekurang-kurangnya 8(D) bahagian bunga (Bisipelajaran)

teks sains 3. Teliti rajah bunga 4. Gunakan rajah bunga yang tidak dilabel, praktis melabel. Semak label yang terdapat dalam buku teks. 5. Kuiz labelkan rajah bunga Aktiviti pembelajaran 6. Taksir- label bahagian bunga.

2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran


Dalam masa 5minit (C), murid Tg 1Z(A) mengenal pasti (Baras) tidak kurang dari 10(D) contoh komponen ayat (Bisipelajaran)[iaitu katanama dan kata kerja] dalam ayat majmuk
Hasil pembelajaran
1. Dengar penerangan

guru mengenai katanama dan kata kerja 2. Lengkapkan ms 7578 buku kerja 3. Main silangkata nahu dengan rakan sebelah 4. Pilih satu perenggan dari buku bacaan. Senaraikan katanama dan katakerja. Aktiviti pembelajaran 5. Semak jawapan bersama pasangan.

2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran


1. Menerangkan fungsi

jantung 2. Mengidentifikasi dari peta topo kawasan yang sesuai dijadikan penempatan 3. Mengenalpasti instrumen yang sesuai untuk tugas. 4. Menghuraikan Hasil pembelajaran sistem dua parti

1. Membaca Bab 6 2. Meneliti rajah

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

struktur atom Praktis mendengar perbezaan frekuensi yang berbeza Menonton Star Wars Mengulangkaji nota kuliah semalam Main dadu lagu Melakonkan watak

Aktiviti pembelajaran

Murid Ting 2 Biru [A]


KOMPONEN SOALAN CONTOH Tulis-label Prestasi pelajar/aras-B Buat apa?

Produk prestasi [isipelajaran]-B Keadaan/condition-C

Apa hasilnya?

3 ayat 10 bahagian bunga Diberi 3 katanamadiberi 2minit


Tidak lebih dari 1 kesalahan-> 8betul, mengikut kepuasan hati guru

Apa keadaannya semasa pelajar menghasilkan produk


Sebaik-sebaik hasil adalah?

Kriateria prestasi/desired criteria-D

Komponen hasil pembelajaran


Prestasi [performance]-B 2. Hasil / produk/isispelajaran [product-content]-B 3. Keadaan/syarat[condition]-C 4. Kriteria [criteria]-D
1.

ATAU
A- audience[siapa yg diajar] cnth murid tingkatan

4 B-behaviour[tingkahlaku yang diperhatikan],cth menyenaraikan [prestasi + konten produk] C- condition [keadaan dimana behaviour didemostrasikan] cth dalam masa 10saat, tanpa bantuan alatan, dalam kumpulan 4orang D- desired criateria [aras prestasi yang diterima] cth 8 dari 10 betul, tiada yang salah, kesemua betul

Komponen pertama hp-[1]Audien


1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Pelajar tingkatan 6 atas Pelajar perempuan Pelajar asrama harian Pelajar bermasalah pembelajaran Kanak pra sekolah Ibu tunggal Belia sukarelawan

Komponen kedua hp[2] behaviour aras atau prestasi dgn produk/isipelajaran


Pelajar dapat 1. Menulis angka hingga 10 2. Menggariskan katanama dalam ayat 3. Menyenaraikan idea utama dalam cerpen 4. Mengkategorikan daun mengikut tekstur daun 5. Menyelesaikan masalah berkaitan pendaraban log

Komponen ketiga hp- [3] condition [syarat/ keadaan]


Batasan masa, bantuan alatan/sumber tenaga 1. Diberi satu senarai yang mengandungi 20 pengarang 2. Setelah membaca Bab 2 3. Dengan menggunakan buku teks 4. Diberi pembaris dan protraktor 5. Tanpa menggunakan sebarang rujukan 6. Dalam masa 10 minit 7. Sebelum minggu ke 10 8. Dalam kumpulan 3 orang

Komponen ke 4 hp- Kriteria


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Aras minima yang diterima: sekurangkurangnya 3 sebab, kesemua 5 langkah Peratus atau kadar yang diterima : 80% tepat, 90% daripada 20 masalah, 9 dari 10 kes Toleransi keralatan yang diterima : +/- 10%,0.1 terdekat, peratus terdekat Had batasan masa : dalam 10 minit, kurang dari 5 minit Gabungan: sekurang-kurangnya 2 masalah dalam masa 5minit, dalam masa 20 minit dengan 90% ketepatan

3. Hasil pembelajaran adalah jelas dan boleh difahami


Ia eksplisit

Mempunyai katakerja [clearly stated verb that

describe a define action or behaviour] Contoh 1. Melabel bahagian jantung 2. Mengukur panjang tali 3. Mengenalpasti unsur dalam sebatian 4. Menyenaraikan komponen surat rasmi 5. Mengucapkan petikan dalam Bahasa Jerman

4. Hasil pembelajaran boleh dilihat


Tahu Faham Kenalpasti Senaraikan

Percaya
Hargai Hayati Fikir Suka Sedar seronok

Menerangkan
Memilih Tuliskan Lukiskan Menganalisa Meramal mengasingkan

Implisit

Eksplisit

Domain Afektif [krathwohl]


Menerima [receiving] 2. Memberi respon [responding] 3. Menghargai [valuing] 4. Komitmen [ comitment]- menggabungkan aras 4-organization dan aras 5-characteriszation
1.

Aras Afektif 1Menerima [receiving]


Sedar menerima rangsangan

Kata kerja pilih, dengar Cth Berada dalam kelas semasa guru mengajar

Aras Afektif 2memberi respon [responding]


Memberi respon kepada ransangan

melibatkan diri dengan lebih aktif [ pergerakan fizikal] Secara sukarela memberi respon Katakerja menjawab, mengucapkan Cth Kedudukan murid mengadap guru dengan bahagian atas badan condong ke depan sains

Aras Afektif 3Menghargai [valuing]


Secara sukarela menunjukkan penghargaan

Kata kerja bertanya, menyoal, mengajak Cth Menbuat catatan, angkat soalan untuk kemukakan soalan

Aras Afektif 4komitmen [ commitment]


Mempunyai sistem nilai yang tekal dan

mengamalkan nilai-nilai tersebut Kata kerja mempertahankan, mempengaruhi Cth Mengamalkan tingkahlaku tersebut secara tekal

Domain Psikomotor [ringkas]


Imitasi [ imitation] 2. Manipulasi [ manipulation] 3. Ketepatan [ precision]
1.

Aras psikomotor 1Imitasi [Imitation]


Melaksanakan kemahiran asas dengan arahah

dan dibawah penyeliaan Koordinasi dan pelaksanaan tidak kemas Kata kerja latih tubi, menggunakan Cth Pelajar boleh meniru pergerakan guru menggembur tanah

Aras psikomotor 2Manipulasi [manipulation]


Melaksanakan sesuatu kemahiran tanpa

sebarangan arahan atau penyeliaan tapi belum menunjukkan kemahiran Kata kerja mengenakan, mengetatkan, membungkus Cth Dapat menggembur tanah secara bersendirian tetapi masih wujud batas-batas yang padat

Aras psikomotor 3ketepatan [precision]


Melaksanakan sesuatu kemahiran dengan tepat,

cekap dan secara harmoni Koordinasi telah sempurna Kemahiran telah dihayati [ can be performen unconsiously] Kata kerja mensejajarkan, mengkalibrasi, menipulasi, membina Cth : murid dapat menggemburkan secara sendirian dan dapat mengubahsuai kekuatan dan sudut anyunan cangkul untuk menggembur tanah

IS THIS HOW WE FEEL AFTER A SEMESTER OF TEACHING?

Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran


1.

2.
3. 4. 5.

Pengalaman lisan Pengalaman visual Pengalaman vikarios Pengalaman simulasi Pengalaman terus

Aras Pengalaman pembelajaran


1.

pengalaman lisan Apa yang dilisankan oleh guru, melibatkan satu pancaindera sahaja, menggunakan simbol yang abstrak, murid tidak aktif secara fizikal. Contoh : bagi tajuk bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang, murid-murid mendengar ceramah bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang.

Aras Pengalaman pembelajaran


2. pengalaman visual

Melibatkan gambar pegun, rajah, carta, murid,

tidak aktif secara fizikal. Contoh : mendengar ceramah bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang sambil menonton slaid yang berkaitan.

Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran


3. Pengalaman vikarios Program video / murid secara tidak

langsung melakukannya walaupun mungkin pergerakan fizikal adalah terbatas. Contoh: Melakukan lawatan untuk melihat sendiri bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang.

Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran


4. Pengalaman Simulasi

Main peranan, melakukan eksperimen, simulasi,

melibatkan sebahagian besar panca indera, aktiviti mengintegrasi pelbagai disiplin, menghampiri keadaan sebenar. Contoh: Mensimulasikan proses penggubalan undang-undang di kelas.

Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran


5. Pengalaman Terus

Murid sebenarnya melakukan apa yang

dipelajarinya, inkuiri tulen, melibatkan kesemua panca indera, menggabungkan pelbagai disiplin, perkara yang sebenar. Contoh: Memilih jawatan kuasa untuk memantau satu program sekolah. Pemilihan adalah bermodelkan parlimen.

Kaedah pengajaran berpusatkan guru-berpusatkan murid


Kawalan Guru Banyak Sdh Ke Byk Sederhana (Sdh) Sdk Ke Sdh Sedikit (Sdk) Kuliah, modelling Kuliah dengan sj, demonstrasi Sokratik Perbincangan, penemuan, individualised instruction Debat, main peranan, simulasi, permainan, inkuiri, pembelajaran koperatif, kajian bebas

Pendekatan/ strategi/ kaedah/ model/teknik p&p


Kaedah debat, deduktif, demonstrasi, drama,

eksperiman, induktif, inkuiri, kajian kes,kerja amali, kerja lapangan, kuliah, main peranan, membuat keputusan, metakognisi, pembelajaran koperatif, pembentangan, penyelesaian masalah, perbincangan, permainan, projek, simulasi, soal jawab, sumbangsaran.

Taksiran formatif
Latihan (praktis terbimbing/ bertempoh) soalan

objektif betul salah, aneka pilihan, aneka lengkap, padankan, cloze test

Learning Framework
but have you answered the questions all learners need to know? where do I need to go? Why should I gi there? How will I get there? How will I know when Ive arrived?

Design of Engaging Work


Clear criteria Relevant content Affirmation & Affiliation Novelty &Variety

Design Elements of Engaging Work


Affirmation Recognition of work and worth Affiliation Working with others towards a common

goal Safe no fault practice Clear criteria Clear description of quality Choice Sharing decision making (empowerment) Authenticity Real life expectations- meaningful, valuable relevant content enduring, necessary for future learning, important in real life Organization of learning how/ where learning fits Novelty & variety -Brain is hard- wired to pay attentation to anything new

What does brain research tell us is necessary of engagement?


Novelty brains are wired to pay attention to new

things Challenge proximal zone Feedback descriptive, within thirty minutes Coherence fits with what is known Sufficient time to go deep, construct new knowledge

Design Elements of Engaging Work


Affirmation Recognition of work and worth Affiliation Working with others towards a common

goal Safe No fault practice Clear criteria Description of quality Choice Sharing decision making (empowerment) Authenticity Real life expectations- meaningful, valuable relevant content enduring, necessary for future learning, important in real life Organization of learning how/ where learning fits Novelty & variety -Brain is hard- wired to pay attention to anything new

Remember that the person doing the work is growing the dendrites
Pat Wolfe, 2001

Essentials of Classroom Based Assessment


Research shows increases in student

achievement and motivation when students

Are involved

Understand learning goals

Know criteria for success

Receive and use descriptive feedback

14 Behaviors Teachers Use that Increase Student Achievement


The teacher. 1. Calls on everyone in the room equitably. 2. Provides individual help. 3. Gives wait time. 4. Asks questions to give students a clue to the answer. 5. Ask questions that require more thought. 6. Tells students whether their answers are right or wrong. 7. Gives specific praise. 8. Gives reasons for praise 9. Listens. 10. Accepts feeling of student. 11. Gets within arms reach of each student each day. 12. Is courteous to students. 13. Show personal interest in students. 14. Does not call attention to every negative behavior.

Guidelines for Effective Praise


Effective Praise effective 1. Is delivered contingently 2. Specifies the particular accomplishment. 3. Shows spontaneity, variety, and other signs of credibility; suggests clear attention to students accomplishments.
Ineffective Praise

Is delivered randomly or unsystematically. 2. Is restricted to global positive reactions. 3. Shows a bland uniformity that suggests a conditional response made with minimal attention.
1.

Guidelines for Effective Praise


effective Effective Praise 4. Rewards attainment of

Ineffective Praise
4. Rewards mere participation, without consideration of performance, process, or outcomes. 5. Provides no information at all or gives students no information about their status. 6. Orients students toward comparing themselves with others and thinking about competing.

specified performance criteria. 5. Provides information to students about their competence or the value of their accomplishments. 6. Orients students toward better appreciation of their own task-related behavior and thinking about problem solving.

Guidelines for Effective Praise


Effective praise Ineffective praise

7. Uses students own prior accomplishments as the context for describing present accomplishment. 8. Is given in recognition of noteworthy effort or success at difficult (for this student) tasks. 9. Attributes success to effort and ability, implying that similar successes can be expected in the future.

7. Uses accomplishments of peers as context. 8. Is given without regard to effort expended or the meaning of the accomplishment. 9. Attributes success to ability alone or to external factors such as luck or low task difficulty.

Guidelines for Effective Praise


Effective praise Ineffective praise
10. Foster exogenous attributions (students believe that they expend effort on a task for external reasons to please the teacher, win a competition or for a reward. 11. Focuses students attention on the teacher as and external authority that is manipulating them 12. Intrudes into the ongoing process, distracting attention from task-relevant behavior.

10. Fosters endogenous


attributions (students believe that they expend effort on a task because they enjoy the task and/ or want to develop taskrelevant skills. 11. Focuses students attention on their own task-relevant behavior. 12. Fosters appreciation of, and desirable attributions about, task-relevant behavior after the process is completed.

Pendekatan/strategi/ kaedah/ model/ teknik p&p


Kaedah debat, deduktif, demonstrasi, drama,

eksperiman, induktif, inkuiri, kajian kes,kerja amali, kerja lapangan, kuliah, main peranan, membuat keputusan, metakognisi, pembelajaran koperatif, pembentangan, penyelesaian masalah, perbincangan, permainan, projek, simulasi, soal jawab, sumbangsaran

Thinking About The Sternberg Intelligences


Analytical linear schoolhouse smart - sequential
Show the parts of _____and how they work. Explain why __________works the way it does. Diagram how _______affects___________. Identify the key parts of______________.

Present a step-by-step approach to_____________.

Practical

street smart contextual focus on use

Demonstrate how someone uses _________ in their life of work. Show how we could apply ______to solve this real life problem ________ Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Heres a problem at school, _____. Using your knowledge of _____________, develop a plan to address the problem.

Creative

innovator- outside the box what if - improver

Find a new way to show __________ Use unusual materials to explain __________________

Use humor to show___________________


Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________________ Make connections between ___________and _______to help us understand _______________ Become a __________and use your new perspective to help us think about __________________.

Practical: using this 8 given cities, (or you may choose other cities after approval by teacher), demonstrate how landforms and bodies of water contributed to the development and movement of people to this site over of the period of time. You may use overlay transparencies or models to show the areas and growth. Creative: develop a map of a new world that has at least 8 different types of landforms and /or bodies of water. Using labels, etc., determine how these sites would grow due to economic possibilities of these geographical features, and predict population growth over a period of time. Analytical : create clues or a set of directions to help us identify and locate at least 8 landforms on the map (given in the textbook, or a map provided by the teacher). Clues/ directions should also be based on population and economic growth and changes.

Learning Style Social Studies Lesson on Landforms Based on Sternbergs Intelligence Preference

Know : geographical terms (isthmus, delta, peninsula, river, island) Understand : landforms and bodies af water effect human movement and influence the development of cities. Do : locate and label specific landforms analyze how landforms produce economic advantages that establish settlements. After student have read and taken notes on the chapter, the teacher reviews with the whole class the basic information on landforms. Then, students are given a choice of three assignments to be done

Partial List of Learning Modality Tasks/ Skills


Kinesthetic
model demonstrate build

Visual
diagram
Chart Illustrate graph

overlay
Timeline Cartoon Video

Map
Web Model Pop-up

Act out produce


transform

Use tools to simulate


Show in lab

dance craft
make

Oral
recite Discuss Debate Argue Broadcast Question Speech Interview
radiocast Preach Persuade compose

Auditory
soundscape Music commercial Ad/jingle Speech Chant Rhythm phone

Cook/taste Sing converse perform

Students are asked to a read a textbook chapter, using a graphic organizer for note-taking. They then prepare a review/response using learning modality preferences. They may work in learning style alike partnerships to prepare the response. In class, they will debrief in groups of 4 with each modality represented in each group.
Kinesthetic Using your notes, create a set of overhead transparencies, 1-3 minute simulation, cardboard puppet theater, or short drama that helps us link the big ideas, crucial moments, and important people in this chapter. Oral Using your notes, create a set of 5-8 openended questions that are designed to be asked of the important people in this chapter. The questions responses should reveal the big ideas, crucial moments, and other important people. You will be the responder as someone else reads at least two of the interview questions.
Auditory Using your notes, create a 1-3 minute news item that summarizes the essential ideas, crucial decisions, and people. You may tape or videotape this, using your voice and others.

Visual Using your notes, create a power point (4-5 slides), timeline, or concept map that helps us understand the main ideas, crucial decisions, and important people in this chapter.

Differentiation by Learning Modality Preference Sewing Project Choices in Consumer Education Class

students will all create a small, original product using skills of: sewing, design & layout, fabric selection, color choice, embellishment choices
Kinesthetic Create a cloth book or baby blanket made of varying textures of fabric that would allow a child to feel rough, smooth, thick, thin, soft, hard, etc. be prepared to justify your choices.
Visual Create a fabric illustration, college, or pillow that sets a strong, visible mood. Be prepared to justify your choices.

Oral Create a quilt square or small wallhanging that tells a story or responds to a question. For example, when I am joyful, I ..be prepared to justify you choices
Auditory Create a fabric collage or pillow using a particular piece of music as inspiration for fabric and color selections. Be prepared to justify your choices.

Primary Transportation by learning modality continued

Kinesthetic Construct/build a vehicle using classroom materials Demonstrate how it goes, use vocab words to describe.

Oral Identify a vehicle and its parts as you tell a story Describe what makes it move and how it goes;use vocab Auditory Identify a vehicle through the sound that it makes using sound effects tape; use vocab Use a sound or song with a vehicle to show how it moves and goes

Visual Draw a picture of a vehicle and label its parts Show how you made your vehicle and how it goes by making a poster

Possible formats to use with RAFTS


Written Diary entry Bulleted list obituary Invitation Product guide Game rules Recipe Movie critic Freq Ask Ques Editorial Character monologue Job application Gossip column Mag. article Visual Cartoon/comic Crossword puzzle map Scale plan or drawing Graphic org. Concept web illustration Print ad photograph Power point how to diagram Fashion design Oral song Set of discussion? conversation monologue sermon radiocast Museum guide commercial Readers theater interview Tasting political speech Puppet show Story tell Kinesthetic model cheer mime reenactment Wax museum Demonstration Sales pitch with demo elements Physical analogies Taste tests how to video game Sew, cook,build Design a.

Three Common Types of Problems


Well- structured problems

- Clearly formulated, solved by specific procedure,

solution evaluated against agreed upon standard III- structured problems - Complex, few clues to solution procedures, lessdefinite criteria for measuring solution Issues - III- structured problems that arouse strong feelings

Five Step Approach to Problem Solving


Realize that a problem exists.

Understand the nature of the problem.


Compile relevant information. Formulate and carry out a solution. Evaluate the solution.

Heuristics
Study worked examples.

Work on a simpler version of the problem.


Break the problem into parts. Work backward. Solve an analogous problem. Create an external representation of the problem.

Systematic Framework for Evaluation


Ask and answer a set of basic questions (who,

what, where, when, how). Identify imperfections and complications. Anticipate possible negative reactions from other people. Devise improvements.

What is transfer of learning?


Transfer of learning is..

- students independently apply knowledge and skills to similar but new information.

Types of Transfer
Positive transfer

- A situation in which prior learning aids subsequent learning. Negative transfer - A situation in which prior learning interferes with subsequent learning. Zero transfer - A situation in which prior learning has no effect on new learning.

Types of Transfer
Specific transfer

- Situation in which prior learning aids subsequent learning because of specific similarities between two tasks. General transfer - Situation in which prior learning aids subsequent learning due to the use of similar cognitive strategies.

Type of Transfer
Near transfer

- knowledge domains are highly similar, the settings in


which the original learning and transfer tasks occur are basically the same, and the elapsed time between the two tasks is relatively short.
Far transfer

- knowledge domains and settings are judged to be dissimilar


and the time between the original learning and tasks is relatively long. transfer

Types of Transfer
Low-road transfer

situation in which a previously learned skill or idea is almost autimatically retrieved from memory and applied to a highly similar current task.
High-road transfer

situation involving the conscious, controlled, somewhat effortful formulation on an abstaction that allows a connection to be made between two tasks.

Teaching for Low-Road and High-Road Transfer


Provide students with multiple opportunities for varied

practice to help them develop a rich web of interrelatead concepts.


Give students opportunities to solve problems that are

similar to those they will eventually have to solve


Teach students how to formulate for a variety of tasks

general rules, stratrategies, or schemes that can be used in the future with a variety of similar of problems.

Teaching for Low-Road and High-Road Transfer


Give students cues that will allows to retrieve

from memory earlier-learned information that can be used to make current learning easier.
Teach student to focus on the beneficial effects of

creating and using rules and strategies to solve particular kinds of problems.

Technology Tools for Knowledge Construction and Problem Solving


Multimedia simulation

Computer-supported intentional learning

environments.
Learning through collaborative visualization
Jasper Woodbury and anchored instruction

Constructivist-oriented web sites

Curriculum Enrichment Techniques


Type I enrichment

- involvels exploratory activities that are designed to


exposed student to topics not ordinarily covered in the regular curiculum Type II enrichment involves instuctional methods and materials aimed at the development of thinking and feeling processes. Type III enrichment consists of activities in which students investigate and collect data about a real topic or problem.

THE NATURAL LEARNING STAGES (COMPRSSED IN 4 STAGES OR EXPANDED IN 6 STAGES)


STAGE 1: Motivation/watch, have to, shown,interest

STAGE 2: Start to practice/practise,trial, & errors, ask ?s


STAGE 3: Advanced Practice/practice, lessons, read, confidence STAGE 4: Skillfulness/some success, enjoyment, sharing STAGE 5: Refinement/improvement, natural, pleasure, creative STAGE 6: Mastery/teach, recognition, higher challenges