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Lecture 10

Antenna cont.

By S . Naiman

Basic concepts and definitions Calculation of radiation from antenna Link between two antennas

Radio Link



Radio wave Transmitter Receiver

Antennas: important elements of any radio link


Reciprocityan antenna ability to transfer energy from the atmosphere to its receiver with the same efficiency with which it transfers energy from the transmitter into the atmosphere

Characteristics and performance are identical( gain , directivity, frequency of operation, bandwidth, radiation resistance, efficiency etc)
We should know that the reciprocity theorem hold only if the whole system (antennas + propagation environment) is isotropic and linear.

Definition cont..

Isotropic pattern is the pattern of an antenna having equal radiation in all directions.(Theoretical concept, cannot be physically

Sends (receives) energy equally in (from) all directions. Gain = 1 (= 0 dB)

When supplied by P, produces at distance r power flux density = P /(4r2) Sometime it is known as Reference Antennas Omni directionalspherical radiation pattern

Definition cont..

Antenna gain
Antenna gain a measure of how much more power in dB an antenna will radiate in a certain direction with respect to that which would be radiated by a reference antenna (a source point) Two type of references antenna are generally used. Isotropic antenna: gain is given in dBi Half wave dipole antenna: gain is given dBd Manufacturer often use dBi in their marketing to show a slightly higher gain dBi= dBd+2.15dB

Antenna gain
Directive gain is the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference antenna

P Pref

Maximum directive gain is called directivity Power gain is the same as directive gain except that the total power fed to the antenna is used( i.e antenna efficiency is taken into account)

Ap D

Effective area :Related to physical size and

shape of antenna Relationship between antenna gain and effective area

G = antenna gain Ae = effective area f = carrier frequency c = speed of light = carrier wavelength

Definition cont..
Directional antenna is an antenna, which radiates (receives) much more efficiently in some directions than in others. Usually, this term is applied to antennas whose directivity is much higher than that of a half wavelength dipole.
Better received signal strength Less interference to other receiving More complex antenna

1. 2. 3.


Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) is the
amount of power the transmitter would have to produce if it was radiating equally to all directions, in order to provide equivalent PFD at a given direction. Note that EIRP may vary as a function of direction because of changes in the antenna gain vs. angle

EIRP Prad Dt

Pt = Pout /Lt [W] (the power into the antenna)

EIRP( dBm) 10 log

Prad 0.001

10 log Dt

EIRP( dBw) 10 log Pr adDt


Power density
To determine a power density t a given point distance R from a transmit antenna
In terms of antenna Gain

Pdensity 4R 2
Pin At
In terms of directive Gain


Prad Dt 4R

For a transmit antenna with a power gain At=10 and an input power Pin=100W, determine
1. EIRP in watts, dBm and dBW 2. Power density at a point 10km from the transmit antenna 3. Power density had an isotropic antenna being used with the same input power and efficiency.


Radiation resistance the portion of an antennas input impedance that results in power radiated into space

Rrad - radiation resistance is related to the radiated power by


Antenna Efficiency
Antenna Efficiency is the ratio of the power radiated by an antenna to the sum of the power radiated and power dissipated or the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the total input power

Prad Pd

Prad Pin


P P P x100
rad rad d

Antenna efficiency (percentage)

Power radiated by antenna Power dissipated in antenna

i 2 Rr

( Rr Re )

Rr Rr Re

Rr=radiation resistance Re=effective antenna resistance Example For a transmit antenna with a radiation resistance Rr=72, an effective antenna resistance Re=8, a directive gain D=20, and an input power Pin=100W, determine
1. Antenna efficiency 2. Antenna gain (absolute and dB) 3. Radiated power in watts, dBm, and dBW 4. EIRP in watts, dBm and dBW

Definition cont..
Radiation pattern is a polar diagram indicating the intensity of radiation from a transmitting antenna or the response of a receiving antenna as a function of direction
If the radiation pattern is plotted in terms of electric field strength or power density , it is called absolute radiation pattern (variable distance , fixed power) If it plots field strength or power density with respect to the value of reference point it is called relative radiation pattern (variable power , fixed distance)

Near and far fields

The term near field refer to the field pattern that is 2 D close to the antenna-region less than from the antenna Sometime called induction field radiation that
surrounds an antenna and collapses its field back into the antenna

Term far field refer to the field pattern that is at 2 D great distance- region greater than


Polarization of the field the direction of the electric field of a given electromagnetic radiated signal Linear polarization: The direction of the electric field is constant and does not change with time For propagation close to earth surface we use the term vertical, horizontal and slant polarization

Elliptical polarization :The direction of electric field is time dependent Circular polarization: the amplitude of the electric field is independent of time


Definition cont..
Beam width the angular separation between the two half-power points on an antennas power density radiation pattern Is the angle of coverage where the radiated energy is 3dB down from the peak of the beam


Antenna Bandwidth
Antenna bandwidth is defined s the frequency range over which antenna operation is satisfactory Difference btn the highest and lowest frequencies of operation


Pattern lobe is a portion of the RP whose local radiation intensity maximum is relatively weak. Lobes are classified as: major, minor, side lobes, back lobes.


Definition cont..


Pattern beamwidth
Half-power beamwidth (HPBW) is the angle between two vectors, originating at the patterns origin and passing through these points of the major lobe where the radiation intensity is half its maximum. First-null beamwidth (FNBW) is the angle between two vectors, originating at the patterns origin and tangent to the main beam at its base. It very often approximately true that FNBW2HPBW.

Definition cont..


Principal patterns are the 2-D patterns of linearly polarized antennas, measured in the E-plane (a plane parallel to the E vector and containing the direction of maximum radiation) and in the H-plane (a plane parallel to the H vector, orthogonal to the E-plane, and containing the direction of maximum radiation).


Given the free space radio transmission system with the following transmission characteristics:
Transmitter power out=40dBm Transmission loss Lf=3dB Free-space pathloss Lp=50dB


Determine the antenna input power Pin, radiated power Prad, EIRF, and received power denity for an isotropic transmit antenna with a directivity of unity Dt=1 and an efficiency=100%