Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

Redox Reactions page 212

RED-OX reactions
In a redox reactions, oxidation reaction is always accompanied by reduction reaction Some general guidelines:

Decomposition

of compounds to form elements are redox reactions A single replacement reaction is always a redox reaction because it involves an element that becomes incorporated into a compound and an element in the compound being released as a free element. A double replacement reaction usually is not a redox reaction

Oxidation
Is a process when a substance is oxidised When it gains oxygen

+ O2 CO2 + Cl2 2HCl + S

When it loses hydrogen


H2S

When it loses electrons


Mg

+ Cl2 MgCl2 / Mg Mg2+ + 2e

When it increases in the oxidation state

Reduction
Is a process when a substance is reduced When it loses oxygen

Zn

+ CuO ZnO + Cu + Cl2 2HCl

When it gains hydrogen


H2

When it gains electrons Fe3+ + e Fe2+ When it decreases in the oxidation state

Oxidizing/Reducing Agent
Oxidizing agent oxidizes the other reactant and is itself reduced by accepting electrons from the other reactant Reducing agent reduces the other reactant and is itself oxidized by transferring its electrons to the other reactant

Rules for assigning oxidation state


Rule 1: Oxidation state of a free element is zero Rule 2: Oxidation state of a simple ion = its charge Rule 3: Sum of oxidation state of all atoms in an electrically neutral compound = 0 Rule 4: Sum of oxidation state of a polyatomic ion = its charge

Formation of Zinc Oxide


2Zn + O2 ZnO Oxidation state of zinc in zinc metal = 0

Because of Rule 1

Oxidation state of oxygen in oxygen gas = 0

Because of Rule 1
Because of Rule 2 Because of Rule 2

Oxidation state of zinc in zinc oxide = +2

Oxidation state of oxygen in zinc oxide = 2

Formation of Zinc Oxide


Oxidation state of zinc increases from 0 in zinc metal to +2 in zinc oxide Zinc is oxidized, loses electrons

Half

equation: Zn Zn2+ + 2e

Oxidation state of oxygen decreases from 0 in oxygen gas to 2 in zinc oxide Oxygen is reduced

Half

equation: O2 + 4e- 2O2-

NOT a redox reaction


Neutralization reaction Acid base reaction Acid carbonate reaction Precipitation

Types of redox reactions


Displacement reaction Metals react with acid or water or oxygen Chemical cell reactions Reactions at electrolytic cell during electrolysis

Test for Reducing agent


Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution Observations: If a reducing agent is present, the colour of the paper changes from purple to colourless Reaction:

MnO4

+ 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + H2O Purple Colourless

Test for Reducing agent


Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution Observations: If a reducing agent is present, the colour of the paper changes from orange to green Reaction:

Cr2O72

+ 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Orange Green

Test for Oxidizing agent


Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in a mixture of potassium iodide solution and starch solution Observations: If a oxidizing agent is present, the colour of the paper changes from colourless to blue Reaction:

2I

I2 + 2e I2 can turn starch dark blue in colour

Examples of Redox reactions


Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen to make water. Potassium chlorate is heated in a test tube. Oxygen gas is made and potassium chloride is left in the bottom of the tube. Hydrochloric acid is poured onto zinc metal to make zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

A copper wire is put into silver nitrate. Silver metal appears and the solution turns blue from copper (II) nitrate. Magnetite, an ore of iron, is smelted in large hot furnaces by blowing carbon monoxide gas through the ore. The result is liquid (molten) iron and carbon dioxide bubbles. Lead metal and lead (IV) oxide in sulfuric acid produce lead (II) sulfate and water. This is the reaction in a common lead-acid car battery.

Methane gas burns in oxygen to make water vapor and carbon dioxide. Octane burns with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water. Concentrated nitric acid is put on copper wire. Water and copper (II) nitrate in the water solution is produced, along with a brownish gas, nitrogen monoxide or nitric oxide Potassium dichromate(VI) and hydrochloric acid in solution will make chlorine gas, water, chromium (III) chloride and potassium chloride. (The soluble salts, of course, remain in the water solution.)

Potassium permanganate solution when added to potassium cyanide in water solution will make manganese (IV) oxide and potassium hydroxide and water and potassium cyanate (KOCN). In a sulfuric acid solution potassium permanganate will titrate with oxalic acid to produce manganese (II) sulfate, carbon dioxide, water, and potassium sulfate in solution.