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Sreejith Bhattathiri M FM-798

The Pull System


Material is pulled through the system when needed Reversal of traditional push system where material is pushed according to a schedule Forces cooperation Prevent over and underproduction While push systems rely on a predetermined schedule, pull systems rely on customer requests

Kanban Production Control System


Japanese word for card Heart of JIT System Scheduling system that can immediately and clearly communicate demands of customer to the delivery system Authorizes production from downstream operations Pulls material through plant May be a card, flag, verbal signal etc.

Used often with fixed-size containers


Add or remove containers to change production rate

Kanban card indicates standard quantity of production Derived from two-bin inventory system Kanban maintains discipline of pull production

Need of Kanban
Level production (balance the schedule) in order to achieve low variability of the number of parts from one time period to the next. Avoid complex information and hierarchical control systems on a factory floor. Do not withdraw parts without a Kanban. Withdraw only the parts needed at each stage.

Do not send defective parts to the succeeding stages.


Produce the exact quantity of parts withdrawn.

Functions of Kanban
Visibility function
The information and material flow are combined together as Kanbans move with their parts (work-in progress).

Production function
The Kanban detached from the succeeding stage fulfils a production control function which indicates the time, quantity, and the part types to be produced.

Inventory function
The number of Kanbans actually measures the amount of inventory. Hence, controlling the number of Kanbans is equivalent to controlling the amount of inventory.

Kanban System
Production Card Withdrawal Card

Supplying Process
product product

Customer Process

Finished Goods Store

A Sample Kanban

KANBAN SEQUENCE

Assembly Area

Receiver Post
W.C.

Production order Post

P.O.
P.O.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

P.O.

1. An assembly worker gets a Withdrawal Kanban from the receiver post that tells how many of each item to withdraw from Supply/Storage.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post
W.C.

Production order Post

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

2. The assembly worker goes to the supply point and gets a cart with all the items specified on the withdrawal card.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post

Production order Post

P.O. W.C.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

3. There is a Production Order card on the cart that the assembly worker removes and places on the receiver post where someone from fabrication will get it.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post

Production order Post

P.O. W.C.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

4. The assembly worker places the withdrawal kanban on the full cart and takes it back to the assembly area to assemble.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post

Production order Post

W.C.

P.O.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

5. Someone periodically removes the production order kanbans from the receiver post, reviews and sorts them for priority, and places them on the production-order post.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post
P.O.

Production order Post

P.O.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

6. A fabrication worker comes to the Production-Order Post and gets a production-order kanban and an empty cart.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post

Production order Post


P.O.

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

7. Fabrication produces the items specified on the Production-Order Kanban delivers them to the supply/storage area.

Assembly Area

Receiver Post

Production order Post

Fabrication Area

Supply/Storage Area

P.O.

Types of Kanban
Primary Kanban:
Travels from one stage to another among main manufacturing cells or production preparation areas. The primary Kanbans are two kinds, one of which is called `withdrawal Kanban (conveyor Kanban) that is carried when going from one stage to the preceding stage. The other one is called `production Kanban and is used to order production of the portion withdrawn by the succeeding stage.

Supply Kanban: travels from a warehouse or storage facility to a manufacturing facility Procurement Kanban: travels from outside of a company to the receiving area. Subcontract Kanban: travels between subcontracting units. Auxiliary Kanban: may take the form of an express Kanban, emergency Kanban, or a Kanban for a special application.

Calculation of Number of Containers


N = DT/C Where n = total number of containers D = Demand rate of the using work centre C = container size in number of parts, usually less than 10 per cent of daily demand T= time for a container to complete an entire circuit (lead time)

Kanban Use
The Kanban system works well in repetitive production environments (Line flows/product focused)
If you are able to achieve small lot sizes and short set-up times, and If your suppliers are close by and can make frequent deliveries using a just-in-time system.

Benefits
Reduce inventory level

Less confusion over sequence of activities


Less obsolescence of inventories while in storage Smaller floor space requirements for storing inventory

Reduce lead time


Improved quality Higher employee productivity

Greater system flexibility