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Chemical equilibria

Non-reversible reactions

a) The reaction goes to completion. b) The reactant decreases with time. AT the end no more reactant left. c) The amount of product increase with time. d) The rate of reaction of A decreases with time and eventually stop.

Reversible reactions

1. The reaction does not go to completion. 2. The amount or concentration of H2 and I2 decrease with time. At equilibrium, a fixed amount of I2/H2 still found in the reaction mixture. 3. The amount of HI increases with time. However at equilibrium a fixed amount of HI is found in the reaction mixture. 4. The rate of reaction between H2 and I2 decrease with time. The rate of reaction of HI increase with time. At equilibrium, the rate of the forward and reverse reaction is equal.

Chemical equilibrium
A
B

Occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates Forward reaction : A B, Rate = k1[A] Reverse reaction : B A, Rate = k-1[B]

k1[A] = k-1[B]

Dynamic equilibrium is the stage where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction, and the amount of substances does not change with time.
Equilibrium law- when a reversible reaction has achieved dynamic equilibrium, the ratio of the molar concentration of the products(raised to power of their respective stoichiometric coefficient) to the molar concentration of te reactants is a constant, at constant temperature.

aA+ bB

cC + dD

[C]c[D]d =constant,K c [A]a[B]b

Kc is called the equilibrium constant

Non-reversible reactions for Homogeneous system


The reactant and product are at the same physical state

Reversible reactions for Homogeneous system

Reversible reactions for Homogeneous system

Reversible reactions for Homogeneous system

Example 1
Exp1:The initial concentrations of ethanedioic acid and ethanol are 1.0 mol dm-3 and 2.0 mol dm-3 respectively. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol is 0.8 mol dm-3. Calculate the Kc value of this reaction.

Answer

Exp 2:In this reaction, 2.0 mol of NOCl decomposes to form 0.66 mol of NO at equilibrium. Work out the value of Kc.

Kc is called the equilibrium constant

Answer

Non-reversible reactions

Conclusion

Chemical equilibra
a) b) The reaction goes to completion. The reactant decreases with time. AT the end no more reactant left. The amount of product increase with time. The rate of reaction of A decreases with time and eventually stop.

Non-reversible reactions

c) d)

Reversible reactions

Exp1:The initial concentrations of ethanedioic acid and ethanol are 1.0 mol dm-3 and 2.0 mol dm-3 respectively. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol is 0.8 mol dm -3. Calculate the Kc value of this reaction.

1. 2.

3.
4.

The reaction does not go to completion. The amount or concentration of H2 and I2 decrease with time. At equilibrium, a fixed amount of I2/H2 still found in the reaction mixture. The amount of HI increases with time. However at equilibrium a fixed amount of HI is found in the reaction mixture. The rate of reaction between H2 and I2 decrease with time. The rate of reaction of HI increase with time. At equilibrium, the rate of the forward and reverse reaction is equal.

B A Occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates Forward reaction : A B, Rate = k1[A] k1[A] = k-1[B] Reverse reaction : B A, Rate = k-1[A] Dynamic equilibrium is the stage where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction, and the amount of substances does not change with time. Equilibrium law- when a reversible reaction has achieved dynamic equilibrium, the ratio of the molar concentration of the products(raised to power of their respective stoichiometric coefficient) to the molar concentration of te reactants is a constant, at constant temperature. [C]c[D]d =constant,Kc aA+ bB cC + dD [A]a[B]b

Chemical equilibrium

Exp 2:In this reaction, 2.0 mol of NOCl decomposes to form 0.66 mol of NO at equilibrium. Work out the value of Kc.

Kc is called the equilibrium constant