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Presented by : ENGR. STALIN P.

MACAPILI SAFETY OFFICER

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

RESULTS
HIGHER COST & LOWER PROFIT MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT IS NOT LIKE MONEY SPENT FOR MATERIAL OR WAGES. THERE IS NO RETURN ON MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

IMMEDIATE
DEATH INJURY PAIN DISEASE DAMAGE LOSS FEAR

SHORT TERM
MEDICAL TREATMENT REPAIRS REPLACEMENTS LOST PRODUCTION INCREASED COSTS DISCIPLINE LOW MORALE

LONG TERM
SUFFERING DISABILITY LOST INCOME INSURANCE COMPENSATION MISTRUST MISSED TARGETS PROFITABILITY

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VICTIM AND DEPENDENTS


Suffering Effect on sport & hobbies
Continuing disability Effect on family
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Lost of earning Extra expenses

SUPERVISOR
Worry

Loss prestige

Recrimination

Report, extra work, training new staff


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SECTION OR DEPARTMENT

Morale

Capacity to produce

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FIRM OR ORGANISATION
Loss of earning

Loss in paying in legal action


Damage to the equipment and materials

Compensation Penalty Extra insurance premium Lost of client


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NATION

Loss of income in a form of income tax

Loss of morale

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ACCIDENT COSTS ICEBERG


INSURED COSTS (1)
Medical (covering injury, ill health) Compensation Building damage Tool, equipment, material, product damage Production delays and interruptions Legal expenses Expenditure on emergency first aid supplies Interim equipment rentals Investigation time/clearing site Wages paid for time lost Costs hiring and/or training replacements Overtime working Extra supervisor time Loss of expertise/experience Decreased output of injured worker upon return Loss of business and goodwill
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THE HIDDEN UNINSURED COSTS (8 36 as much as insured costs)

ACCIDENT RATIO STUDIES


THE HEINRICH THEORY (USA-1931)
1
29 300 SERIOUS / FATAL MINOR INJURIES NON-INJURY

THE TYE/PEARSON THEORY (UK-1974/75)


1 3 50 80 400 SERIOUS / FATAL MINOR INJURIES (1 TO 3 DAYS MC) FIRST-AID INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE

THE BIRD THEORY (USA-1969)


1 10 30

SERIOUS / FATAL
MINOR INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE NON-INJURY

600

NON-INJURY / DAMAGE

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AN UNPLANNED EVENT WHICH RESULTS IN UNACCEPTABLE CONSEQUENCES

AN UNDESIREABLE EVENT WHICH INTERRUPTS NORMAL ACTIVITY


Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

An unexpected, unplanned event in sequence of events, that occurs through a combination of causes. It results in injury or disease to an individual, damage to property or equipment, a near-miss, a loss or any combination of these effects.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Workers, unions and employees dont always agree on why accident happen.
Workers may say that the workplace is : HAZARDOUS * UNSAFE * DANGEROUS * BADLY ORGANISED

THE WORKPLACE IS TO BLAME.


Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Employers sometimes say that the worker is : CARELESS * RECKLESS * SILLY * ACCIDENT PRONE * STUBBORN * INCONSIDERATE * IGNORANT

THE WORKER IS TO BLAME.


Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Some accidents may be due to human errors. But the work environment must recognise that the workers are human and sometimes make mistakes this must be acknowledged during workplace design. Employers can improve the workplace so that stress, fatigue and poor working conditions do not cause mistakes.

HAS BLAMING EACH OTHER SOLVED THE PROBLEM ? NO, AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE ACCIDENT FIGURES.
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THE HUMAN FACTOR


DIRECTLY INVOLVED
Fatigue Stress Taking shorts cut Lack of experience Lack of training Lack of concentration Not wearing
appropriate PPE Using incorrect tool Not following work practices

INDIRECTLY INVOLVED
Fault with the
original design of a piece of equipment. Inappropriate purchasing decisions. Behavior of fellow individuals in the workplace.

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSON


Operating without clearance/failure to secure or warn. Operating or working at unsafe speed. Making safety devices inoperative. Using unsafe equipment or equipment unsafely. Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc. Taking unsafe position of posture. Working on moving of dangerous equipment. Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling,
etc. Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices.
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UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS


Inadequately guarded, guards of improper height, strength, mesh, etc. Unguarded absence of required guards. Defective, rough, sharp, slippery, decayed, cracked, etc. Unsafely designed machines, tools, etc. Unsafely arranged, poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, etc. Inadequately lighted, sources of glare, etc. Inadequately ventilated impure air sources, etc. Unsafely clothed, no goggles, gloves, masks,
wearing high heels, etc.

Unsafe processes, mechanical, chemical,


electrical, nuclear, etc.
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UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Improper use equipment

TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Incorrect tool selected for job; tool used in a manner for which it was not intended; overloading, defeat or removal of safety devices; use of obviously defective equipment. Hot metal clothing not worn or left unbuttoned. Incorrect type of glove/eye protection used. Failure to use safety harness/lifeline. Failure: to shut off equipment not in use; to place warning signs etc.; to lock or secure vehicles, switches, valves, ladders, materials against unexpected motion etc.; to warn others or give instructions. Jumping from heights, operating plants at unsafe speed, running, throwing materials, haste or short cuts taken, horseplaying. Gripping objects insecurely, taking wrong hold, improper body position adopted; attempting to lift excessive weight or move awkward load manually.
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Failure to make proper use of correct protective clothing/equipment. Failure to secure warn.

Working at unsafe speed. Incorrect posture or improper use of limbs.

UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Inattention

TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION To footing or surrounds.

Personal unsafe position Standing/riding/walking in unsafe places. Unnecessary exposure to moving equipment, or equipment/substances which are hot.

Unsafe placement
Hazardous plant/ equipment/materials Unsafe operational method Inadequate personal equipment Unsafe precautions on plants/site equipment

Of vehicles, materials or equipment (housekeeping).


Accident caused through equipment or plant/materials which are rough; sharp; worn; hot; broken; improperly designed; constructed; assembled or maintained. Use of inherently hazardous methods or procedures; inadequately lifting aids. Improper of inadequate clothing or equipment provided. Inadequate guarding, shielding, insulation, earthling, shoring, labeling.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Unsafe storage

TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Improperly stacked or placed equipment/materials; plant/ equipment inadequately secure against movement.

Environment hazards

Excessive noise, insufficient space, clearance, ventilation, lighting; inadequate traffic control; airborne dust; effects of room temperature.
Defective premises, low headroom, slippery floors, improperly designed or damaged stairs, catwalks, ladder etc.; holes in floors; house-keeping.

Unsafe place of work and unsafe means of access/egress.

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES


HEINRICH (1930s)
Emphasis for prevention on unsafe acts/condition. Approach can lead to blaming the worker when management system is at faults (prone worker approach). FIVE FACTORS/STAGES IN THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS; 1. ANCESTRY / SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT. 2. FAULT OF A PERSON 3. UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITION 4. ACCIDENT 5. INJURY
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

THE ACCIDENT HIERARCHY


MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WORK ACTIVITIES ROOT CAUSE

OPERATING RULES

VIOLATIONS

MISTAKES

DIRECT CAUSE

ACCIDENTS
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

THE ACCIDENT STUDIES


MANAGEMENT Through Supervision
Controls

MAN FAILURE Knowledge, Attitude, Fitness, Ability


Which Causes or Permits

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS

UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

INEXPLICABLE

88%

10%
Which Cause

2%

ACCIDENTS 2% are unpreventable 50% are practically preventable 98% are of a preventable type
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Safety is absence of danger.


Safety is an attitude, a frame of mind.
It is the awareness of ones environment and actions, all day, everyday. To do this does not require genius, a PhD, or even a title or rank.

Safety is knowing what is going on; knowing what can


injure anyone or anything; knowing how to prevent that injury and then acting to prevent it. All it requires is intelligence and a reasonable amount of native ability to see, to hear, to smell and to think.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Safety Awareness means ;


being able to recognise unsafe practices and conditions. It requires following safety procedures. getting to know all you can about the conditions that promote safety, including emergency response procedures. signifies you to willingness to take time to prevent accident. having the right attitude about safety, both your own and your coworkers safety. can help prevent injury, illness and accidental damage to company property. being on the lookout for unsafe practices and conditions in your work area.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Safety Awareness is all about understanding the need to prevent avoidable accidents and there are three compelling reasons why every organisation and every individual MUST accept accident prevention as vital element of all activity in the workplace.

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

An accident can lead to a change of lifestyle that can be for an individual and often for a whole family.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Organisation face loss absenteeism, higher accident compensation premium Hidden cost of accidents stopped production, spoilage of material, damage to plant and equipment, replacement of staff, training & re-training, re-tooling, re-designing
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Social Security payments to

people injured in accidents, but not adequately covered by other insurance.


Aid to dependent families

where income falls below a minimum level.


Payments to legal personnel relating to court

proceedings.
Preparation and issuance of laws standards and

regulations and their administration.


Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

EMPLOYER

S et OSH policy and committee. A llocate budget for OSH programmed and activities. F ulfill the need of OSH Legislation. E nsure all employees understand the related OSH T raining for OSH commitment. Y ield analyses the achievement for improvement.
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

programmed and activities.

EMPLOYEE

S earch all hazards at workplace. A ssess the potential risk. F ind the control measures. E xercise and make it habit. T ake part on OSH programmed and activities. Y ell for commitment.
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ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT

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Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor