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Part 1 Individual workouts

Weight training is very unique Sports have specific rules that you follow, else you lose There are few hard rules in weight training only guidelines Program design is an art If you don't know where you're going, you'll probably end up somewhere else There are many, many ways to do things Everything works, but nothing works forever However, some methods may be superior for eliciting gains

Learn the basic guidelines! When you become a master you can manipulate them

Basic Concepts of Training Theory

Adaptation adjustment of an organism to its

Exercise is a powerful stimulus for adaptation

Adaptation has four features of importance to training: Overload magnitude of training load is above normal level Accommodation response to a constant stimulus will decrease over time Specificity different training types lead to different results Individualization everyone is different Training loads can be classified as: Stimulating positive adaptation can take place Retaining fitness is maintained Detraining decrease in performance

The relationship between work and regeneration that

leads to superior adaptation

Acute Program Variables

Exercise choice Includes variations on exercise tempo, negatives, etc. Exercise order Number of sets Number of reps per set Weight x Sets x Reps = volume Training intensity % of 1RM

Rest periods
We manipulate acute program variables in order to achieve overload If planned/executed well, this leads to greater strength, hypertrophy, etc.\ If not planned/executed well, it lead to overtraining, decreased performance, etc.

Exercise Choice
Remember specificity! Free weight vs. Machine weight Free weight is generally deemed superior for muscle activation, requires greater stabilization of body Machines weights restrict range of motion, but can be safer in some circumstances Both have a place in a program (but free weight exercises are generally best) A good program will use most or all free weight exercises. However, machine exercises do have their place (helpful with hypertrophy). Single Joint vs. Multi-joint We rarely move one joint at a time Multi-joint exercises recruit additional muscle mass and have a greater metabolic demand Single joint exercises generally require less skill/technique (great for fatiguing exercises) Multi-joint exercises are limited by a weakest link (i.e., core strength)

Exercise Choice (cont)

Different exercises for same muscle group Different angles, grip widths, foot positions, etc., change muscle recruitment Bilateral vs. Unilateral Bilateral allows for greater loads Unilateral does not usually Power/plyometric exercises vs. traditional exercises Exercise technique affects time under tension Negatives, isometrics, etc. Tempo (3/0/X/0)
3 sec eccentric, 1 sec pause at midpoint, X as fast as possible

(eXplode), 0 sec pause at end

Exercise Order
Large muscle group/multi-joint vs. Small muscle group/single

Large muscle group or multi-joint exercises tend to be more physically

demanding Exercises later in the session are affected by fatigue from earlier exercises
You do NOT want to have poor technique on big exercises like the squat

and deadlift!
Performing large exercises first allows for the greatest loads and best

This enables greater gains in strength

Push/pull, upper/lower vs. push/push, upper/upper etc. Alternating exercises can allow you to recover somewhat Not alternating can cause greater fatigue (not necessarily a bad thing) Supersets/combo sets, etc. Great for saving time Can cause a great level of fatigue

Exercise Order in a Nutshell

Perform large muscle group exercises before small

muscle group exercises Multi-joint before single joint Alternate push and pull for total body sessions Explosive lifts (e.g., Olympic lifts) before basic strength (i.e., squat, deadlift) and single joint exercises Exercises for weak areas before exercises for strong areas Most intense to least intense (especially when circuiting/supersetting/etc.)

Number of Sets
Number of sets regulates volume

In untrained individuals, as few as 2-4 sets per muscle

group can elicit strength gains

At the very beginning, a novice can progress off of single sets Very soon, they will have to add sets to continue getting stronger

In trained individuals, 4 sets appear to be optimal for

strength gains In highly trained individuals, as many as 8 sets may be required (per muscle group, not necessarily per exercise) Not different between genders

Number of Reps per set

RPE (intensity) and # of Reps

For strength, good For hypertrophy,

technique is key
You should generally

metabolic demand is very important

You should hit a lot more

stay between 7 and 9 RPE

9s and 10s

Intensity (cont)
We will talk more about intensity later

Some exercises can be taxing in a very different way

The deadlift starts with a concentric component and requires you to

hold on to a big weight with your hands This can be more taxing compared with the squat (starts with eccentric and you do not have to hold the load in your hands) You may not be able to max or go heavy as frequently

Going all out every day may be effective for a while, but

will likely lead to injury if a deload is not implemented or rest/nutrition is insufficient

Rest Periods
Different rest periods have different effects Directly affects fatigue/recovery Strength 3-5 minutes of rest between sets Hypertrophy About 60 (as much as 90) seconds between sets Endurance 30-60 seconds between sets Rest periods also partly determine total time in the gym Weight lifting time should generally take 45-60 minutes, no longer than 90 for most individuals

How do I put this together in a workout?

Many different ways to do things - make sure you know your

goals, time commitment, equipment availability, etc. Number of weight lifting sessions usually varies from 2-6 days/week
Pick the right number for you 2-3 is sufficient for general health and

muscle development/maintenance if planned appropriately

Style of workout many, many different ways Circuit training
good for general health and muscle maintenance

good for muscle growth and physique development

good for muscle strength, bone density, etc.

Crossfit and other higher intensity programs

good for skill building, power, endurance, etc.

Circuit Training
Pick 6-8 exercises and perform 10-20 reps or 20-30

seconds of work with 30 seconds of rest for each exercise

Completing all exercises is a set Complete 3-5 sets with 2-3 minutes of rest in between

This style of training is effective for full body training Can be done 2-4 times per week effectively Example circuits:
Monday & Thursday A1) Squats x10 A2) Military Press x10 A3) Deadlifts x10 A4) Rows x10 Tuesday & Saturday B1) Power cleans x10 B2) Bench Press x10 B3) Lunges x10 B4) Chins x10

A5) Planks x 45-60 seconds B5) Landmines x15

Many, many different splits You will usually need to have greater recovery time between workouts using

the same muscle group

You will be sore, I promise

Generally stay in the 8-12 rep range, but sometimes hit 15-20 4 sets is generally sufficient

Different training splits

2 day
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Legs, back, biceps, forearms, abs Chest, deltoids, triceps, abs

3 day
Legs, abs Chest, deltoids, triceps, abs Back, biceps, forearms, abs

4 day
Legs, abs Chest, triceps, abs Back, biceps, forearms Deltoids, abs

5 day
Legs, Abs Chest Back, Abs Shoulders, Abs Arms

6 day
Lower body pull Chest Upper back Shoulders Quads

Day 6


Strength is a skill Focus on technique

Weights tend to be heavier, fewer reps (1-6 rep ranges) However, train like a bodybuilder after main/supplemental exercises
For rep ranges and total # reps, follow Prilepins table
Day 1
Max effort squat/deadlift Supplemental squat movement Hamstring movement Low back movement Abdominals

Day 2
Max effort Bench press Supplemental bench movement Triceps Shoulders Lats/upper back

Day 3
Dynamic effort Squat/deadlift Supplemental squat movement Hamstring movement Low back movement Abdominals

Day 4
Dynamic effort bench press Supplemental bench movement Triceps Shoulders Lats/upper back

Prilepins Table
Use this table for determining optimal number of reps

when working on strength or power movements May be too taxing for deadlifting go with the lower end of the range

Crossfit et. al.

Workouts are randomized

Generally in some kind of circuit

Uses lots of different kinds of movements
MON Three rounds for time of: Row 1000 meters 20 Pull-ups 30 Box jumps, 20 inch box TUES 21-15 and 9 rep rounds of: Left-arm Kettlebell snatch, 1.5 pood Right-arm Kettlebell snatch, 1.5 pood WED rest THURS For time: Run 1 mile with a 20 pound medicine ball 60 Burpee pull-ups FRI For time 15, 12, and 9 rep rounds of: 45 pound Dumbbell Thruster Muscle-up SAT Hang power snatch 3-3-3-3-3 reps SUN Rest

Run 800 meters with a 20 pound medicine ball

30 Burpee pull-ups Run 400 meters with a 20 pound medicine ball 15 Burpee pull-ups