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Creativity and Innovation

Imagination is more important than knowledge." - Albert Einstein

Different Ways to Think


There are five basic categories of ways to think: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Logical thinking Lateral thinking Opposite thinking Group thinking Creative thinking

Logical thinking
In analytical thinking, one uses a methodical step-by-step approach to break down complex problems or processes into their constituent parts identifies cause and effect patterns and analyzes problems to arrive to an appropriate solution

Institute of Critical Thinking

Logical thinking examples


1. A doctor diagnosing a patients illness

2.
3.

An engineer trying to determine why a machine is not working


You have six pairs of black socks and six pairs of white socks in a drawer. In complete darkness, and without looking, what is the least number of socks must you take from the drawer in order to be sure you get a matching pair? A milkman has two empty jugs: a three gallon jug and a five gallon jug. How can he measure exactly one gallon of milk without wasting any?

4.

Institute of Critical Thinking

Lateral thinking
methods of thinking concerned with changing concepts and perception - (Edward de Bono) It is about reasoning that is not immediately obvious and about ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic Thinking outside the box
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Exercise 1 Using only four strokes,and without lifting the pen,connect all the dots

See this figure?


Divide the figure below into as many pieces as you can by making four straight cuts with a long knife

New Challenge
A company manufactures glassware. The last step of the process is to wrap glasses individually in used newspapers and then place them in a specially designed box. The box is then sealed. Management notices low productivity with this last step, observing that workers occasionally stop to read the newspapers? What can management do to increase productivity?

Look at the chart say the color not the word

YELLOW RED ORANGE PINK PURPLE BLACK GREEN RED WHITE YELLOW BLUEORANGE

What is Creativity?
Creativity is the ability to see the same things as everyone else but think something different. Creativity involves the translation of our unique gifts and talents into something that is both new and useful. Creativity is an important element in finding new ways to do old things and ways to do things yet undone.

Creativity
a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts

Institute of Critical Thinking

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Main elements of creativity


C = fa ( K,I,E) K-knowledge I- Imagination E-Evaluation a-ATTITUDE

Levels
Individual activity

Group activity

Individual creativity profile


Optimistic about future Open to alternative Daydreamers Independent thinkers Willing to take risk Full of commitment Take action

Org encouragement

Use creativity tech

Creative people

Useful Creative potential

Creative ideas

Acceptance idea

innovation

Motivate people Reduce frustration Retain creative people Brand image of organization

Org support for more creative


Top level support and encouragement Freedom of expression and action Toleration of failure Healthy competition Positive feedback Creative time

Organizational creativity and innovation


1) Generation of idea 2) Idea development 3) Implementation

Generation of idea
Its depend on people and information between the firm and its environment. Outside consultants and experts are important sources of information for managers.

The creative process


One of the earliest models of the creative process is attributed to Graham Wallas (1926) who proposed that creative thinking proceeds through four phases:
Preparation (definition of issue, observation, study, information gathering)
Incubation (laying the issue aside for some time)

Illumination (emerging of the new idea)


Verification (checking it out)
Institute of Critical Thinking 20

Idea development
It is dependent on the organizational culture and processes within the organization Organization structure also plays an important role. MIS and DSS and expert system store and retrieve generated idea and aid managers in idea development.

Implementation
Idea Innovation For innovation to be successful high degree of integration is required among the various units of the organization. Technical specialist : engineering side of product Admin and financial expert : cost within practical limits

Marketing manager : who is responsible for test marketing , promotion it. Proper integration of all these groups is necessary for a quality innovation to be produced on time, budget and for a viable market

Creative Problem-Solving Techniques

Brainstorming
Brainstorming combines a relaxed, informal approach to problem-solving with lateral thinking. It asks that people come up with ideas and thoughts that can at first seem to be a bit crazy Another advantage of group brainstorming is that it helps everyone involved to feel that theyve contributed to the end solution, and it reminds people that other people have creative ideas to offer. Whats more, brainstorming is fun, and it can be great for team-building

Delphi technique
Method of providing members of a group with the ideas of others without a face-to-face meeting. An individual member writes down his thoughts on a problem and submits them to a coordinator. The coordinator then compiles all comments received from the members and sends them to every member for review. Each member then provides feedback on the other members' comments and submits recommendations to the coordinator. Finally, the coordinator attempts to reach a consensus of opinion based on all comments received

Nominal group
Divide the people present into small groups of 5 or 6 members, preferably seated around a table. State an open-ended question Have each Person spend several minutes in silence individually brainstorming all the possible ideas and jot these ideas down. Have the groups, collect the ideas by sharing them roundrobin fashion (one response per person each time)

Have each person evaluate the ideas and individually and secretly vote for the best ones (for example, the, best idea gets Points, next best 4 Points, etc). Share votes within the group and tabulate. A group report is prepared, showing the ideas receiving the most points. Allow time for brief group presentations on their solutions

Creativity & Innovation


Creativity Generative novel ideas. Innovation the process of converting novel ideas into something of value.
creativity screening innovation

Innovation
Innovation as the translation of a new idea into a new company, A new product, a new service, a new process, a method of production.

New company

New product

Innovation variable

Structural variable Organic structure Abundant resource Frequent communication Minimal time pressure

Stimulate innovation

HR variable High job security High commitment to Tranning and development

Cultural variable Tolerance of risk Tolerance of impractical Tolerance of conflict Open system focus Positive feedback

Barriers to Creativity
Self-constraining beliefs the participant makes the problem more difficult by assuming certain constraining conditions that do not exist. Fears, beliefs, and stresses people that fear criticism or have strong beliefs may have limited ability to be free and creative Routines and rigidity this may inhibit the information gathering, interactions, and incubation of thought that leads to creativity.