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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT


Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this PowerPoint slide may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this PowerPoint slide, you are using it without permission. 1

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Chapter 19

Pressure Measurement

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

With the steam age came the demand for pressure measuring instruments which can be expressed relative to various zero references..

PRESSURE-MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
With the steam age came the demand for pressure-measuring instruments. Pressure gauges are used for a variety of industrial and application-specific pressure-monitoring applications. Their uses include visual monitoring of air and gas pressure for compressors, vacuum equipment, process lines and specialty tank applications such as medical gas cylinders and fire extinguishers. In addition to visual indication, some pressure gauges are configured to provide electrical output of indicated pressure and monitoring of other variables such as temperature. Bourdon tubes or bellows, where mechanical displacements were transferred to an indicating pointer were the first pressure instruments, and are still in use today. Pressure metrology is the technology of transducing pressure into an electrical quantity. Normally, a diaphragm construction is used with strain gauges, either bonded to, or diffused into it, acting as resistive elements. Under the pressure-induced strain, the resistive values change. In capacitive technology, the pressure diaphragm is one plate of a capacitor that changes its value under pressure-induced displacement.

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

It is important to select a pressure range that accommodates all anticipated pressure swings, and which prevents excessive needle movement. It is recommended to confine normal operating pressure to 25% to 75% of the scale. With fluctuating pressure (e.g., pulsation by a pump or compressor), the maximum operating pressure should be lower (50% of the full range). Choices for pressure-gauge measurement ranges include positive pressure, vacuum measurement, compound measurement, differential pressure, absolute pressure, and sealed pressure. A positive pressure gauge measures a pressure range from zero pressure to a higher, positive pressure. Vacuum measurement switches measure vacuum pressure (negative pressure). A compound pressure gauge measures a pressure range from negative pressure (vacuum) to positive pressure. Differential pressure gauges give the relative pressure between two points. If both operating pressures are the same, the measuring element cannot move and no pressure will be indicated. A differential pressure is indicated when one pressure is higher or lower. Low differential pressures can be measured directly in cases of high static pressures. Absolute gauges are used where pressures are to be measured independently of the natural fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. The pressure of the media to be measured is compared against a reference pressure of absolute zero (absolute vacuum) in a sealed reference chamber. Sealed-gauge pressure-measurement is similar in concept to an absolute pressure gauge, except that the pressure of the media to be measured is compared to standard atmospheric pressure (at sea level). Display types available for pressure gauges include digital readouts, analog meters and needles, and graphical and video displays. Pressure range to be measured is an important specification to consider when searching for pressure gauges. Accuracy of the pressure gauge is measured as a per cent of full scale and in cases where the accuracy differs between middle span and the first and last quarters of the scale, the largest percentage error is reported. The temperature level to which a gauge will be exposed must be considered. Gauges with welded joints will withstand 750F; with silver brazed joints, 450F; and with soft-soldered joints, 150F, for short times without rupture. Other parts of the gauge may be destroyed, however, and calibration lost.
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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

On an analog pressure gauge, the scale can be single or dual. A single scale displays one unit only, a dual scale displays in two units on the same face. Scale units can be PSI, kPa, bar, inches Hg, cmHg, feet H2O, inches H2O, oz / in2, and kg / cm2. Common features of pressure gauges include adjustable pointers, maximum and minimum pointers, adjustable and stationary set hands, throttling devices, and electric contacts. An adjustable pointer has adjustment to zero the pointer via a screw or knob. A maximum and minimum pointer indicates the maximum or minimum pressure attained. An adjustable or stationary set hand is a separate pointer (hand) to indicate a specifically set pressure. A throttling device is used to reduce pressure impact and pointer movement caused by pressure pulsation and/or vibration. Throttling effect is obtained by installing a restricting orifice between the gauge socket connection and the Bourdon tube. Some types of throttling devices are throttling screws, pulsation dampeners, elastomeric bladders, pressure snubbers and needle valves. Electric contacts are used to turn on signal lights, sound alarms, and operate a pump, valve, etc. Some of the important types of pressure gauges are listed here, viz., digital gauge, differential pressure gauge, water-pressure gauge, air-pressure gauge, absolute pressure gauge, reading vacuum gauge, automotive vacuum gauge, bladder pressure tank, thermistor vacuum gauge, high-pressure air tank, autovacuum gauge, digital pressure regulator, differential air-pressure gauge, murphy gauge, tyre-pressure gauge, blood-pressure gauge, dial-thickness gauge, and airpressure gauge face.

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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Anand K Bewoor & Vinay A Kulkarni

METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

2009 Tata McGraw-Hill Education

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