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Koontz et al, The management function of staffing is defined as filling positions in the organisation structure through identifying workforce requirements, inventorying the people available, recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal, compensation, and training of needed people.

Features: 1. Related to employment of personnel of all types

2. Includes a variety of activities, through which the organisation tries to ensure that various positions remain filled by the most suitable personnel. 3. Is performed by every manager in the organisation Importance: 1. Filling organisational positions 2. Developing competencies 3. Retaining people

Elements of staffing
1. Procurement: manpower planning, Recruitment, Selection, Placement. 2. Development: Orientation, Training, Development, counseling. 3. Compensation: Job evaluation, performance appraisal, promotion, basic pay and rewards. 4. Integration: Communication, grievance handling, discipline. 5. Maintenance: Welfare measures

In recent years, the need for training has increased due to

Increasing size of organisations Advancement of technology Long-range needs for manpower High wage bill Trade unionism Human relations movement

Principles of staffing Staffing objective Staffing responsibility Job definition Managerial appraisal Open competition Management development Continuing development

Procurement Determining manpower needs (Manpower planning) Identifying the sources of required personnel (Recruitment) Choosing the right candidates (Selection) Putting up the selected candidates on appropriate jobs (Placement)

Manpower planning

Decenzo and Robbins: Specifically, human resource planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organisation achieve its overall objectives

Features: 1. HRP is a process through which an organisation tries to ensure that right people, at right place, and at right time are available. 2. It involves determination of future needs of manpower in the light of organisational planning and structure. 3. It indicates what actions can be taken to make existing manpower suitable for future organisational positions and the gap between needed and available manpower can be fulfilled.

Manpower planning process

1. 2. 3. 4.

Forecasting future manpower requirements Inventorying present manpower resources Anticipating manpower problems Planning the necessary programmes of recruitment, selection, training, deployment, utilisation, transfer, promotion, development, motivation and compensation so that future manpower requirements will be met.

Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and Selection Recruitment: Werther and Davis: Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. Selection: Stone: Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.

Difference between Recruitment and Selection Criteria Objective Recruitment To attract maximum number of candidates Positive. Creates a large pool of applicants Selection To choose the best out of the available candidates Negative. More & more candidates are rejected and fewer candidates are selected.



Less intensive techniques are used

Application pool

Highly specialised techniques are used

Finalising candidates who will be offered job.

Sources of recruitment Internal sources: 1. Reviewing the personnel records (Methods: Promotions and Transfers) 2. Job posting and job bidding (Method: Job posting) 3. Employee's friends (Method: Employee referrals) Advantages: A sense of security, employee loyalty, low labour turnover, motivation to become efficient. Disadvantages: limits selection from a limited pool, encourages favouritism and nepotism, leads to inbreeding.

Sources of recruitment External sources: 1. Employees working in other organisations 2. Job aspirants registered with employment exchanges (employment exchange) 3. Students from reputed educational institutions (Campus recruitment) 4. Candidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and existing employees 5. Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors (Private employment search firms) 6. Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organisation (Advertisements) 7. Unsolicited applications / walk-ins. (Gate hiring) 8. Internet (e-hiring)

External sources:

Advantages: Originality and new ideas Selection of people from a vast pool of applicants Disadvantages: Affects employee morale No sense of security Employees become less loyal Greater turnover of employees Deterioration in employer-employee relationship

Selection process 1. 2. Screening of Applications Selection tests: Aptitude test Interest test Intelligence test Performance or Achievement test Personality test Interview Checking of references Physical examination Approval by appropriate authority Placement

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Induction A process through which a new employee is introduced to the job and the organisation. Purposes: 1. Removes fear 2. Creates a good impression 3. Acts as a valuable source of information First phase: HR department: contents: Company history, products and major operations Geography of the plant Organisation structure and functions of the departments General company policies and regulations Recreational services available Opportunities for promotions, transfers, suggestion systems.

Second phase: A senior person: 10 step programme

1. Greeting the newcomer cordially

2. Displaying a personal interest in the newcomer 3. Reviewing his terms of appointment 4. Showing the newcomer around 5. Giving additional information

6. Explaining the importance of his job in relation to other jobs

7. Introducing the newcomer to the rest of the work-team 8. Telling the newcomer his duties

9. Selecting a person who can assist the newcomer on the job

10.Following up frequently

Training and Development

Concepts Education: Increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the employee's total environment.

Training: An act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.
Development: Activities that prepare an employee for future responsibilities

Training vs Development
Dimension Who What Training Non-managers Development Managers

Improve specific skill Improve total relating to a job personality Short-term Management Reactive Long term Self Proactive

Duration Initiative Nature

Training vs Education Dimension Scope Content Training Narrow Skill learning Education Wide Conceptual learning Schools and colleges

Imparted through Companyspecific

Objectives of Training To impart the basic knowledge and skill to new entrants To equip the employee to meet the changing requirements of the job To teach the employees new techniques and ways of performing the job To prepare employees for higher level tasks

Need for training Newly recruited employees to perform their tasks effectively Existing employees prepare them for higher level jobs Refresher training for existing employees When a person moves from one job to another To make employees mobile and versatile

Benefits of training programme Increase in efficiency Increase in morale of employees Better human relations Reduced supervision Increased organisational visibility and flexibility

Types of training Job training Promotional training Refresher training Corrective training

Training process Identify training needs Conduct training programme (Methods) Evaluate training programme

Training methods

Job instruction training Coaching and mentoring Apprenticeship training Job rotation

Vestibule training Role playing Lecture method Conference Programmed instruction Case study Business game

Refresher training
Orientation training

Management development Management development refers to the process by which executives acquire not only skills in their present jobs but also capacities for future managerial task of increasing difficulty

Objectives and importance Steady supply of competent executives at all levels Optimum ultilisation of human capital Prepare executives for higher assignments Prevent managerial obsolescence Replace old executives with younger talent Promote high morale and job satisfaction Stimulate productivity and growth

Development methods
For managers

Understudy Position rotation Serving on committees Special projects Case study Business game Role play Sensitivity training Training in EI Transactional Analysis Autonomy training

Evaluation of Training and Development Reaction evaluation: Reaction to the training programme Outcome evaluation: Immediate: Improvement in learning Intermediate: measures changes in behaviour Ultimate: indices of productivity, labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, quality, etc.

Performance Appraisal

Performance Appraisal Beach: Performance appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the individual with regard to his or her performance on the job and his potential for development

Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Salary increase Promotion Training and Development Feedback Pressure on employees

The appraisal system

Organisational feedback

Organisational objectives Performance standards

Developed from job descriptions and organisational objectives

Formal appraisal
Evaluation of skills and motivation

HRP, Compensation, merit salary ratings, T&D programmes, and motivation

Personal objectives

Personal feedback

Performance appraisal methods Ranking method Rating-scale method Checklist method Forced-choice method Field review Critical incident technique Confidential report Essay appraisal

Appraisal of managers: Management by objectives

Post-Appraisal Interview Tell and Sell Tell and Listen Problem-solving interview

Barriers to effective appraisal

Faulty assumptions: 1. Managers naturally wish to make fair and accurate appraisal of subordinates 2. Managers take a particular appraisal system as perfect and feel that once they have launched a programme, that would continue forever. 3. Personal opinion is better than formal appraisal. 4. Employees want to know frankly where they do stand and what their superiors think about them

Barriers to effective appraisal. Psychological blocks: Managers feeling of insecurity appraisal as an extra burden Being excessively modest or sceptical treat their subordinates failure as their deficiency Disliking of resentment of subordinates Disliking of communicating poor performance to subordinates

Barriers to effective appraisal. 1. 2. Technical pitfalls: Criterion problem Distortions: (a) Halo effect (b) Central tendency (c) Constant errors (d) Raters liking and disliking

Essentials of a Good Appraisal System Should be easily understandable Have the support of all the line people who administer it Should be data based Should be truly indicative of the performance of the employees Should provide for trained appraisers Should be open and participative Should focus more on the development and growth of employees Should provide for guidance and counseling of the employee Should be periodically evaluated