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Handle with care

Types of Product Plant Layout Types of Production process Finance Production planning and control Managerial policy

Lifting objects is a major cause of back injuries in the work place

Improper storing and handling of material and equipment can result in loss of time, money, and manpower.

Material in the form of raw material semifinished goods are of great significance for the success of an enterprise. Material handling directly affect on the success of firm. Material handling involves the movement of material for one place to another for the purposes of production processing. They are moved either manually or mechanically.

As the science is getting developed new modern equipments are getting introduced in material handling area. It is accelerating the activity of loading and unloading. The equipments are used for the movement of material over a short distance. The bulk handling of the material takes place in shipyards, ports, airports etc.

In warehouses / Factory material handling operations are performed at following stages:

Unloading the incoming material from transport

vehicle. Moving the unloaded material to assigned storage places in warehouses. Lifting the material from the storage place during order picking. Moving the material for inspection & packing. Loading the boxes on transport vehicle.

Material handling is the art and science involving the movement and storing the substances in any form. - American Material Handling Society Types of Material Movement
Vertical movement

Horizontal movement
Combination of both

To reduce material handling cost. Reduction in manufacturing delay through faster movement. To control proper flow of material. To improve working conditions. To emphasize greater safety in movement of material. To reduce hazards during movement of material. To utilize properly storage capacity and storage area. Higher productivity at lower manufacturing cost.

Commonly used equipments in industry are:

Wheeled trolley Forklift truck

Conveyors Overhead cranes Ladders




These are used for mainly picking and placing the material in large volumes. A vehicle is attached in front to move trailers from one place to another in the factory premises. It carries more volume of goods than wheeled trolleys Proper training to the personnel is required to operate the trailers.

Two wheeled and four wheeled trolleys are used for transferring boxes from one place to another place within the organization. Trolleys have wide range of sizes and shapes. Organizations decide as per their requirement.

Forklift truck

Forklift truck This is highly useful in material handling activity.

Movement of larger loads over a longer

distance. Moving the load vertically also. Movement of loads vertically and horizontally, exactly positioning for loading and unloading operations. It can transfer the load in any direction.





These are used where continuous flow of material is essential. It is used in mass production activity on production shop floor. Conveyors are widely used in automated warehouses in big retail shops.

The small wheels made out of steel or plastic bearing. The load is kept on the bearings and either pushed or gravitational force is utilized for the forward movement of the material.





These are commonly used for material movement. It is used in mass production activity.

This is mainly used for movement of heavy material. It is used in mass production activity also. Pallets are kept on the chain and stoppers are provided for carrying out the production related work.


These are used for movement of heavy items

but for a shorter distances. The movement is controlled by a person having controls in his hand. Many times it is a computerized activity. These cranes are installed on the fixed girders near the ceiling.

A pallet is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, front loader. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies.

Orientation Principle
Study the systems relationship Physical and Economic constraint

Planning Principle
Consideration to all activities

Systems Principle
Economically and Technically Feasible

Unit Load Principle Space Utilization Principle

Standardization Principle Ergonomic Principle

Recognize human capabilities and limitation

Energy Principle Ecology Principle

Minimize adverse effects on the environment

Mechanize Principle Flexibility Principle Simplification Principle

Gravity Principle Safety Principle

Follow safety code and Instruction

Computerization Principle Layout Principle Cost Principle Maintenance Principle Obsolescence Principle

Selection of equipment, machine and plant layout to eliminate or minimize material handling requirement. Selection of appropriate, efficient and safe material equipment. Minimizing the cost of material handling by minimizing movement of semi-finished goods during production. To plan movement of optimum number of pieces in one unit. Minimization of distance moved. Eliminate/ minimize back tracking and duplicate handling.