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CHAPTER FOUR

Consumer Motivation

Learning Objectives
1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and Motives and the Meaning of Goals.
2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals. 3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers. 4. To Understand How Human Motives Are Studied and Measured.
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Basics about Human Needs, Motives and Goals

Motivation as a Psychological Force


Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.

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Model of the Motivation Process Figure 4.2

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Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives

Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs
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Goals
The sought-after results of motivated behavior Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals

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How Does this Ad Appeal to Ones Goals?

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It Appeals to Several Physical Appearance-related goals.

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Holiday Travel Plan


How would you plan your next coming holiday? Or think of any plan that you had before.
What factors influence your decision making?

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The Selection of Goals


The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goals accessibility in the physical and social environment

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Discussion Questions
What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year? What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year? In what situations are these two related? How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values?

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Rational versus Emotional Motives


Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria

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Discussion Questions
What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives?

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Dynamics of Motivation

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The Dynamics of Motivation


Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

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Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need The substitute goal will dispel tension Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time

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Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.

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Defense Mechanisms- Table 4.2 (excerpt)


Construct
Aggression

Items
In response to frustration, individuals may resort to aggressive behavior in attempting to protect their self-esteem. The tennis pro who slams his tennis racket to the ground when disappointed with his game or the baseball player who physically intimidates an umpire for his call are examples of such conduct. So are consumer boycotts of companies or stores.

Rationalization People sometimes resolve frustration by inventing plausible reasons for being unable to attain their goals (e.g., not having enough time to practice) or deciding that the goal is not really worth pursuing (e.g., how important is it to achieve a high bowling score?). Regression An individual may react to a frustrating situation with childish or immature behavior. A shopper attending a bargain sale, for example, may fight over merchandise and even rip a garment that another shopper will not relinquish rather than allow the other person to have it. Frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing from the situation. For instance, a person who has difficulty achieving officer status in an organization may decide he can use his time more constructively in other activities and simply quit that organization.
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Withdrawal

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Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal

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How Does This Ad Arouse Ones Needs?

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The Ad Is Designed to Arouse Ones Yearning for an Adventurous Vacation by Appealing to the Sense of Touch

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Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives


Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts

Cognitive School
Behavior is directed at goal achievement Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs

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Types and Systems of Needs

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Types and Systems of Needs


Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs

A trio of needs

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10

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To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

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Both Physiological and Social Needs

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To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

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Egoistic Needs

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To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

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Self-Actualization

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Focus Group Discussion


I find that I learn so much from the others in the club. It is really important to me to keep learning and growing in all parts of my life-including cycling.

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Focus Group Discussion


I had a heart attack a few years ago, and I was told by my doctors that I really needed to step up the amount of exercise that I get-my life depends on this club.

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Focus Group Discussion


I have been cycling a long time, and I have become quite accomplished at it. I wanted to be around other people who could fully appreciate my skill level.

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Focus Group Discussion


I heard about this club and thought that it would be a great way to meet people

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Focus Group Discussion


I used to bike alone, but I had too many close calls, where a driver didnt see me and almost hit me. I decided that it would be smarter to join a club so that I would be cycling in a large group and be more visible.
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A Trio of Needs
Power
individuals desire to control environment

Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging

Achievement
need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs
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To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

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The Affiliation Needs Of Young, Environmentally Concerned Adults

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To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?

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Affiliation Need

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Power And Achievement Needs

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Needs and Military Recruitment Slogans


This is the Army Todays Army Wants to Join You Accelerate Your Life I Want You Join the People Whove Joined the Army An Army of One The Few, the Pound, the Marines Let the Journey Begin Be All You Can Be
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Most Preferred Slogans

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Measurement of Motives
Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Qualitative research is widely used Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives.
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Qualitative Measures of Motives Table 4.7 (excerpt)


METAPHOR ANALYSIS
This method, including the tool termed ZMET, was discussed in detail in Chapter 2. DuPont used this method to study womens emotions regarding pantyhose.
This method consists of having customers tell real-life stories regarding their use of the product under study. Kimberly-Clark used this method to develop pull-ups.

STORYTELLING

WORD ASSOCIATION In this method, respondents are presented with words, one at a time, and asked to say AND SENTENCE the first word that comes to mind. COMPLETION
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Motivational Research
Term coined in the 1950s by Dr. Ernest Dichter Based on premise that consumers are not always aware of their motivations Identifies underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions

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P&G with Consumer Products


What does P&G do to understand consumers needs and wants? How does P&G connect with their consumers?

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Activision
Overview of Activision
What is the role of research in Activision? What research methods are used to understand consumers needs and wants?

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Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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