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Harnessing the economic and performance benefits of Nb-high strength structural steels in India

June 2013
Dr Jitendra Patel Eng.D, C.Eng IMechE, AWeldI, MBA
Director International Metallurgy Ltd (UK) Consultant CBMM Technology Suisse SA (Switzerland)

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Worldwide high rise design

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Indias skyline is changing fast !

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Mumbai (Imperial) Towers

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Example: Pearl River Tower Guangzhou China

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Structural behaviour & limit state design


Structures and their members and connection must meet various performance requirements i.e. limit states.

Strength limit state SAFTEY of the structure Serviceability limit state Occupancy performance (i.e. deflection / vibration) Extremely rare actions Prevention of collapse

Design resistance = Available resistance / safety factor

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Lateral force resisting systems

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High strength steel connections

Connections

Hearst Tower, New York


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Low yield / tensile ratios for seismic resistance

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Designing the right microstructures

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General evolution of structural steels

S1110Q 1,000 S960Q S890Q 800 S690Q 600

Yield Strength (MPa)

S460N 400
200 0 N and N-rolled 1945 1955 1965 S355J2 S355N Q+T

S460M
S355M TMCP

S500M

1975

1985

1995

2005

Year
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General evolution of structural steels

S1110Q 1,000 S960Q S890Q 800 600

Yield Strength (MPa)

These grades are available in India !


S690Q S500M

S460N 400
200 0 N and N-rolled 1945 1955 1965 S355J2 S355N Q+T

S460M
S355M TMCP

1975

1985

1995

2005

Year
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Relationship of yield strength and carbon equivalent

600 550

Normalised TM-rolled

Yield Strength (MPa)

500
450

400
350 300 250 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

Carbon equivalent Ceq (%)


Lower Ceq is better !
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Relationship between weldability and carbon equivalent

Zone I: carbon < 0.11%, lattice distortion and hardness is relatively low, minimal precautions needed. Zone II: higher hardenability, need to control the welding procedure (preheats and heat input) to ensure HV<350. If [H] < 5 ppm, we may tolerate up to HV <450. Zone III: Strict procedure control and post-weld heat treatment needed. Try to diffuse the [H] away, stress relieve the weld, and temper the phases.

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Why micro-alloy with Niobium ?

Value adding: Increases strength + improves toughness Allows for better weldability Cost effective alloying element for steelmakers.
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Why micro-alloy with Niobium ?

Microstructure refinement with Nb Additional benefits with Accelerated Cooling

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Advantages of S355 and S460 steels with Nb

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Types of 50mm Nb high strength steel plates

Steel grade Processing

S355 N

S355 TM

S460 N

S460 QT

S460 TM + ACC

C 0.15 0.07 0.15 0.10 0.07 Si 0.40 0.30 0.40 0.35 0.25 Mn 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.45 1.55 P 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 S 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 Al 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 N 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 Ti 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 V none none 0.12 none 0.04 Nb 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Cu none none 0.60 0.30 none Ni none none 0.60 0.60 0.25 Mo none none none 0.25 none CEq 0.40 0.31 0.50 0.45 0.36 (N = normalised, TM = thermomechanically rolled, QT = quenched plus tempered, TM + ACC = thermomechanically rolled plus accelerated cooled)
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Why use higher strength Nb-steels ?

Higher Strength Lower Weight Lower Weight Higher Strength

= Lower Weight = Lower Transportation = Easier Handling

= Reduced Thickness

Reduced Thickness = Reduced Welds

Reduced Welds
Reduced Welds

= Reduced Time = Reduced Costs

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Advantages of Nb-S355 TM rolled vs Normalised

Source: Dillinger

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Advantages of Nb-S460 NL steel

Source: Dillinger

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Advantages of Nb-S460ML vs. S460NL steel

Source: Dillinger

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Reducing congestion with higher strength Nb rebar

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Advantages of using Nb higher strength steels at >355MPa

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China Phoenix international media center

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China Phoenix international media center

Steel amount: 7,000t Grades: Q345C Q345GJD Q420GJD Q460GJE Plate thickness: 16-36m
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Commercial advantages
In 2008 the hotel chain Travelodge opened its first hotel built from modified high strength steel shipping containers! Estimated to cut 10% from the cost of each build, and improve construction speed by 25%. 86 High strength steel containers Annual saving of 10m 120 rooms fitted in Shenzen, China Construction time = 20 days

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High strength Nb cold / hot rolled strip steel

Nb-bearing hot rolled and cold rolled strip steels (Galv). Typical applications include composite floor deck, purlins etc.

EN10326 S350GD, S390GD and S450GD grades tend to be Nballoyed Hot Dip Zinc Coated (275g/m2 both sides) 1.2 to 3mm in thickness Up to 350mm in section length and 90mm flange width Up to 18m in length.

The trend is to higher strengths and longer spans to further increase the value in use.

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Advantages of Nb high strength steels


The application of steels in such civil construction projects allows the following advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reduced construction time Reduced costs Reduced maintenance Greater load bearing capability Better strength to weight ratios

High strength-to-weight ratios minimises the sub-structure costs. Reduced weight of materials required and resultant reduced transportation/handling costs. Allows pre-fabrication of components away from construction site. Light weight enables erection of larger sections. Recyclable.

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Addressing the issues.

Quality

Availability

Fabrication

Price

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Thank you for your kind attention

For further information, discussion and questions do not hesitate to contact me.

Dr Jitendra Patel International Metallurgy Ltd Mail: jp@imetallurgy.co.uk Tel: +91 9870 955 508

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