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# Sampling

## Population and Sample

A population (universe) is the collection of all members of a group.
Example: all students of XIMB.

## A sample is a portion of the population selected for analysis.

Example: 50 students of XIMB.

## Parameter and Statistic

A parameter is a numeric quantity, usually unknown, that describes a certain population characteristic.
Parameters are normally represented by Greek letters. The population mean and variance, represented by the Greek letters and 2, respectively. Example: The true average height of adult human males.

## A statistic is a quantity, calculated from a sample of data, used to estimate a parameter.

Statistics are usually represented by Latin letters with other symbols. The sample mean and variance are denoted by the symbols X and s2, respectively. Example: The average height of a random sample of 1,000 adult human males.

Types of Sampling
Sampling

Random

Non-random

## Simple Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling

## Random and Nonrandom Sampling

Random sampling
Every unit of the population has the same probability of being included in the sample. A chance mechanism is used in the selection process. Eliminates bias in the selection process

Nonrandom Sampling
Every unit of the population does not have the same probability of being included in the sample. Open the selection bias Not appropriate data collection methods for most statistical methods

## Simple Random Sampling

Every individual or item from the population has an equal chance of being selected Selection may be with replacement or without replacement Samples obtained from table of random numbers or computer random number generators Simple to use May not be a good representation of the populations underlying characteristics

Systematic Sampling
Purchase orders for the previous fiscal year are serialized 1 to 10,000 (N = 10,000). A sample of fifty (n = 50) purchases orders is needed for an audit. k = 10,000/50 = 200 First sample element randomly selected from the first 200 purchase orders. Assume the 45th purchase order was selected. Subsequent sample elements: 245, 445, 645, . . .

Stratified Sampling
Divide population into two or more subgroups (called strata) according to some common characteristic A simple random sample is selected from each subgroup, with sample sizes proportional to strata sizes Samples from subgroups are combined into one Ensures representation of individuals across the entire population

Cluster Sampling
Population is divided into several clusters, each representative of the population A simple random sample of clusters is selected
All items in the selected clusters can be used, or items can be chosen from a cluster using another probability sampling technique

cost effective Less efficient (need larger sample to acquire the same level of precision)

## Types of Survey Errors

Coverage error or selection bias
Exists if some groups are excluded from the frame and have no chance of being selected

## Non response error or bias

People who do not respond may be different from those who do respond

Sampling error
Variation from sample to sample will always exist

Measurement error
Due to weaknesses in question design, respondent error, and interviewers effects on the respondent

## Нижнее меню

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