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Ultimate SC Strategies for the GMAT

by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore) sandeepgupta01@gmail.com 9739561394

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Further Resources: 1. Preparation for SC (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) 2. Sandeep SC Notes (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) 3. Manhattan GMAT SC Guide 4th Edition 4. 700-800 SC Questions a set of 150 GMAT SC Questions (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve 5. GMAT latest SC questions a set of 277 GMAT SC Questions (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve 6. OG 12, 11, 10, OG Verbal Review 1st and 2nd Editions 7. Platinumgmat.com (for Idiom review) 8. GMAT-Prep Verbal Forum Questions from ManhattanGMAT.com 9. 1000 SC (not necessary, though)

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

SC Strategies
Note:
Refer to the NOTES at the bottom of each slide for explanations. Wherever there are no explanations, the statement on the slide will be correct.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

SC Tips
RULES RULE: Intuition is your last resort So any choice that seems right, feels right, sounds right, smells right, etc. may not be the right answer. It is not about conventional Grammar. It is about GMAT-specific SC Questions. Understand the Examiners mindset. The most important thing POE: Dont try to select the correct answer eliminate wrong ones SCAN: Use Horizontal / Vertical Scanning to look for differences in the choices Paper: Use a tick cross system with a pencil SPLIT: Look for a 2/3 or a 3/2 split. Most likely you are likely to narrow down to two choices. TRAP: Choice A can be the right choice in a substantial number of questions. So dont reject an answer only because it is A.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

SC General Techniques
You must read the full sentence
underlined portion no exception to this rule. even the non-

LOCATION of Errors:
Most of the errors on GMAT-SC occur at four potential places

The Beginning of the Underlined Portion The End of the Underlined Portion After the Comma One word / phrase before the underlined portion

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

With companies spending large parts of their advertising budgets online, the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding rapidly. the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and by individual users, are expanding the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and by individual users, are expanding the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by a professional writer, a blogger, and individual users, is expanding the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, are expanding the market for content such as feature articles and opinion essays created by professional writers, bloggers, and individual users, is expanding

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3. Responding to growing demand for high-end vehicles, the interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that they sell for nearly twice the price of last year's models. A. the interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that they sell B. the interiors of the newest models are so luxurious that the cars are sold C. auto makers have installed interiors in the newest models that are so luxurious that they sell D. the interior of the newest models are so luxurious that they are sold E. auto makers have installed such luxurious interiors in the newest models that these cars sell

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4.

A.

B.
C. D. E.

Unsolicited electronic junk mail, also termed spam, has hurt companies by both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity. both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity draining both company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing employee productivity draining both company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing how productive its employees are both draining company resources used to combat the problem and the productivity of employees is diminished both draining company resources used to combat the problem and diminishing how productive its employees are

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

5.

A. B. C.

D.

E.

From the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and the sailors who have fought Americas wars. the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and the Civil War to the Vietnam war, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and soldiers in the Civil War and soldiers in Vietnam, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and soldiers in the Civil War to soldiers in Vietnam, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers to the Civil War and the Vietnam war, Smith & Wesson, the legendary arms maker, equipped both the soldiers and

SC what to watch out for?

The following are crucial (in the respective order of importance)
Grammar Idiom (long list has to be memorized very crucial for success on GMAT-SC) Meaning Clarity Concision (short vs. long) GMAT favorites (long list has to be memorized)
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Grammar Topics
Subject Verb Agreement Modifier Parallelism Comparisons Pronouns Verbs Prepositions, Idioms and Numerical Idioms Punctuation Style Short V/s Long sentences, Meaning Clarity Miscellaneous errors

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Idioms are expressions that are the way they are There can be no explanations / reasoning for idioms You have to memorize a list, e.g.,
Forbid to do NOT from doing Cope with NOT cope up with Comprise NOT comprise of Mistake A for B NOT mistake A as B Consider NOT consider to be or consider as The list continues list in GMAT Book

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Meaning Clarity
The meaning of the sentence should make sense. For example: ONLY those passengers carrying an Identification will be allowed to board the plane. Right Meaning Passengers carrying ONLY an Identification will be allowed to board the plane. Wrong Meaning
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Concision
AVOID Despite the fact that Have the capability Exactly the same In close proximity to Past experience Final Outcome USE Although Can Same Near Experience Outcome ..Long list

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GMAT favorites
AVOID Instead of Due to 2 times Being Compare to Do it May be If Hopefully As well as Enough USE Rather than Because of Double / Twice Lack of being Compare with Do so Perhaps Whether It is hoped And So

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

GMAT favorites
AVOID
Ability Capability As a result of One time 4 times Economical Try and Liable Ought to But Which after the comma

USE
Able Can Result from Once Quadruple Economic Try to Likely Should Although Avoid which after the comma

GMAT SC cases to avoid

Just like Such like Occurring Due to Seeming On account of Owing to Lesser Hopefully Not any And also Requirement Reduction Being Noun Forms Apostrophe / possessive forms

Parallel Structure means CONSISTENCY in writing.

Parallelism figures in more than half of GMAT sentences the single most important type of ERROR on the test.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

List (String) Parallelism

1. 2. 3. 4.

Noun + noun + noun: He likes roses, violets, and bicycles. Verb + verb + verb: When she was on stage, she danced, sang, and acted like an angel. Adjective + adjective + adjective: My teacher is fussy, picky, and hard-headed. Infinitive + infinitive + infinitive: I like to sing, (to) draw, and (to) write poetry.
Here one has to write to either only once or in all the parts.

List (String) Parallelism

5. Phrase + phrase: With his arms akimbo and in a state of bliss, he leaped off the cliff. 6. Clause + clause: If she capitulates and when she apologizes, we will forgive her blunders and unforgettable actions.

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Exercise
7. Mumbai houses 20 million people, the cultural capital of India, and has a lot of potential for a newcomer with dreams. 8. Non-traditional students often study long hours, get limited sleep, and up again with the sunrise. 9. The volume of business depends on an institutions delivery method, production time, and whether or not it is open or closed.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Exercise
10. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting may include dizziness, hives or rashes, swelling of the wound, difficulty in breathing, intense itching, and losing consciousness. 11. The new employee will be responsible for filing paperwork, answering phones, and will take new orders.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Exercise
12. Doctors Without Borders is a private organization that arranges medical treatment in foreign lands, particularly in nations with an endemic outbreak of disease, states at war, and in poverty-stricken countries. 13. Air Force One, the President's main mode of crosscountry travel, is not like any ordinary plane; it has rooms for exercising, meeting with staff, operating in case of medical emergency and a place to tape interviews.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

String Special case

Sometimes the last element in a string may actually not belong to the string it may contain something contradictory / out of sync 14. Since the teacher introduced the classroom reward system, students have begun paying closer attention, completing homework, following directions, and have stopped causing disruptions during lessons.

String Special case

WRONG: Since the teacher introduced the classroom reward system, students have begun paying closer attention, completing homework, following directions, and have stopped causing disruptions during lessons.
Here, the list of begun includes only 3 things the fourth item is stopped so the word and has to come before the last element in the string and to make begun and stopped parallel, we need one more and.

RIGHT: Since the teacher introduced the classroom reward system, students have begun paying closer attention, completing homework, AND following directions, and have stopped causing disruptions during lessons.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

String Special case

Consider the following sentence: 15.The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarianvegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, and meat rarely.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

String Special case

WRONG: The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarianvegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, and meat rarely.
The diet... was largely vegetarian: meat cannot be treated as part of the list of vegetarian foods. So we have to show meat as a contrast.

RIGHT: The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarianvegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, with meat as a rarity. The word with can be used to show contrast, e.g., He is brilliant, with some traces of dumbness.
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Cause Effect Parallelism

If there is a clear cause and effect sequence, the cause is generally in the past / present simple tense and all the effects have to be parallel in the ing form (subordinate action):

16. Ken traveled around the world, visiting historic sites, eating native foods, and learning about new cultures. 17. The rain continued to fall, providing water for the thirsty plants but flooding the streets as well. 18. They danced through life, loving one another and enjoying their adventures.
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Cause Effect Parallelism

19. The stock market crashed, which caused a lot of people to lose money. 20. The stock market crashed, and it caused a lot of people to lose money. 21. The stock market crashed and caused a lot of people to lose money. 22. The stock market crashed, causing a lot of people to lose money. 23. The snow covered the train tracks by more than a foot, prompted the transit authority to shut down service temporarily, and causing discontent among commuters who were left stranded for hours.
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that and that Parallelism

24. He said THAT the college had rusticated him and THAT his future was bleak. 25. The two biggest gains from the rise of the stock markets are THAT companies look forward to growth and THAT investors remain upbeat to explore new opportunities. 26. The coach told the players THAT they should get a lot of sleep, THAT they should not eat too much, and THAT they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

that and that Parallelism

27.The salesman expected THAT he would present his product at the meeting, THAT there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and THAT questions would be asked by prospective buyers. 28.My objections are, first, THAT the measure is unjust; second, THAT it is unconstitutional.
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Parallel Connectors (X || Y)
X rather than Y Between X and Y Both X and Y (Range) From X to Y Either X or Y Neither X nor Y Just as X so Y Not only X but (also) Y Not X but (rather) Y Not so X as Y Same X as Y X is Greater, fewer, less, more than Y More X than Y Believe X to be Y X is Y To think of X as Y X regarded as Y Prefer X to Y Mistake X for Y The same to X as to Y As to X as to Y No less was X than was Y The more X. the er Y As X as Y Whether X or Y

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Parallel Connectors (X || Y)
29. Critics of the current Bowl Championship Series feel that moving from a computer-ranking format to creating a playoff system will improve the integrity of the competition.

30. Jim Thorpe, the legendary multi-sport star, enjoyed playing football more than he ran track and field, but it was winning the gold medal at the 1912 Olympic pentathlon that shot him to fame.
31. A time not for words, but action.
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Parallel Connectors
AND (X AND Y) BUT AS WELL AS OR YET ALTHOUGH

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Parallel Connectors
32. Ralph likes a variety of people, including those who are popular and who are not. 33. The Department of Motor Vehicles is considering a new paging system that would alleviate lines for walk-in customers renewing their licenses and if employees are overwhelmed they would be assisted.
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X is Y parallelism
Consider the sentence: 34. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is to realize that when a person ages, his or her concerns change as well. Here X is Y can be observed. Legacy is to realize NOT parallel RIGHT: One LEGACY of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is THE REALIZATION that as people age, their concerns change as well.

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X is Y parallelism
35. To say that I do not deserve her is being unfair to me. 36. The experiences we have when children still influence our behavior in adulthood. 37. The new toy was the fathers trying to appease the ruffled child. 38. According to the teachings of the Buddhist and Hindu religions, attaining nirvana is to enter a state of supreme liberation.

OMISSION (Parallel structure)

39. WRONG: The doctors have been and will continue to conduct tests on the sick patient.

40. WRONG: She is a believer and supporter of the theory of love at first sight.
RIGHT: The doctors have been conducting and will continue to conduct tests on the sick patient. RIGHT: She is a believer in and a supporter of the theory of love at first sight.

Semicolon both sides parallel

41. WRONG: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed. RIGHT: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.

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1. The earliest English settlers in Virginia failed to survive their first winter in the New World because of factors such as inadequate food supplies, harsh weather, and an inability to communicate with Native Americans. A. an inability B. that they were unable C. because they were unable D. being unable E. Lacking an ability

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2. Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians, surfing appeals to people due to the sports unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops among people in their common quest to conquer nature. SAME surfings appeal is its unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops surfings appeal to people is due to the sports unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and developing camaraderie surfing appeals to people due to the sports unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, a backdrop that is unpredictable and that is, by turns, gracefully and serenely violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops surfing appeals to people due to their unusual confluence of adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering, an unpredictable backdrop that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable, and the camaraderie that often develops
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3.

Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and the victory of the Usuli "mujtahids" in Shiite Iran and Iraq. Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and also In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, of the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and In the first period of religious reformism, Islamic political militancy was manifested in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, and the Mahdi in the Sudan, and in

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4. The basic needs of the average cat are simple and largely inexpensive: food, water, affection, and shelter, and occasional visits to the veterinarian. and occasional visits to the veterinarian with occasional veterinarian visits with occasional visits to the veterinarian yet occasionally visiting the veterinarian but some occasional visits to the veterinarian are needed

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

5.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the tulip craze of the seventeenthcentury in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and the obsession for Beanie Babies in the 1990s. SAME Examples of "tulipomania," a term coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, examples of "tulipomania" include speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, and the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, as well as Coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, "tulipomania" includes examples such as speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and "Tulipomania," coined from the seventeenth-century tulip craze in the Netherlands, included speculative bubbles in South Seas trading rights in the 1720s, Victorian real estate in the 1880s, the U.S. stock market in the 1920s, and

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

6.

Though once powerful political forces, labor unions have lost much of their influence, which has resulted in a political climate that some analysts claim to favor management. which has resulted in a political climate that some analysts claim to favor resulting in a political climate that some analysts claim favors which has resulted in a political climate that some analysts claim that favors resulting in a political climate that some analysts claim to be in favor of which has resulted in a political climate that has been claimed by some analysts to favor

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

7. Agencies studying discrimination in housing have experimentally proved that minority clients are often discouraged as prospective buyers of residential real estate and the antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades were only mitigating, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing practices. the antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades were only mitigating, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing practices in recent decades, the antidiscrimination legislation only mitigated, rather than abolishing, inequity in housing practices that antidiscrimination legislation of recent decades has only mitigated, rather than abolished, inequity in housing practices that, in recent decades, antidiscrimination legislation has only mitigated, rather than abolishing, housing practices inequity that recent decades antidiscrimination legislation only were mitigating, rather than abolishing, housing practices inequity
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8. According to anthropologists, the use of human language covers a wide spectrum from practical communication between people engaged in the same task to establishing hierarchy within a social group. practical communication between people engaged in the same task to establishing hierarchy communicating practically between people engaging in the same task to the establishment of hierarchy practical communication between people engaged in the same task to the establishing of hierarchy communicating practically between people engaging in the same task to hierarchy established practical communication between people engaged in the same task to the establishment of hierarchy

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

9. Art experts have attributed the enduring intrigue of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa to everything from having an enigmatic smile, which was never explained, to her association with the rich and powerful families of Europe. having an enigmatic smile, which was never explained having an enigmatic smile, which has never been explained her enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an explanation her enigmatic smile, which has never been explained having an enigmatic smile, for which there has never been an explanation

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10. Recent research has indicated that sustainable weight loss is generally a result not of self-deprivation or adopting an extreme diet, but a healthy lifestyle that integrates a balanced diet, regular exercise, and a longterm approach. self-deprivation or adopting an extreme diet, but self-deprivation or the adoption of an extreme diet, but of self-deprivation or the adoption of an extreme diet, but depriving oneself or adopting an extreme diet, but depriving oneself or adopting an extreme diet, but that of

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

11.

Though laypeople often refer to the panda as a bear, due to its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than any member of the bear family. due to its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than due to the fact that it physically resembles one, DNA testing showed that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than is because of its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than because of its resemblance to one physically, DNA testing has shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than is because of its physical resemblance to one, DNA testing has shown that it is more closely related to the common raccoon than to

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12. While larger banks can afford to maintain their own dataprocessing operations, many smaller regional and community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading data-processing equipment and with the development and maintenance of new products and technical staff are prohibitive. A. cost associated with B. costs associated with C. costs arising from D. cost of E. costs of

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

13.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earths outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic field. SAME core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earths outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic field core rotates independently and more quickly than Earths outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earths magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earths outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earths magnetic field core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earths outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earths magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

14.

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15.

The coloration of insects can serve as camouflage, as in the case of green insects that spend their lives in or near foliage, or to warn predators, as in the case of insects colored in yellow and black, which often signals that it is poisonous. or to warn predators, as in the case of insects colored in yellow and black, which often signals that it is poisonous. or for warning predators, as in the case of insects that have yellow and black coloring, which often signals that it is poisonous. or as a warning to predators, as in the case of insects bearing a combination of yellow and black, which often signals that they are poisonous. or as a predator's warning, as in the case of insects that are colored yellow and black, which often signals that they are poisonous. or to warn predators, as in the case of yellow-and-black insects, which often signals that they are poisonous.

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16. To tackle the issue of Congressional campaign spending is becoming embroiled in a war which is raging between those who support public financing with those who would lift the limits on the amount political parties and individuals may donate. becoming embroiled in a war which is raging between those who support public financing with becoming embroiled in a war raging among those who support public financing with to become embroiled in a war raging between those who support public financing and to become embroiled in a war which is raging among those who support public financing and becoming embroiled in a war raging between those who support public financing and
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

17. A result of the recent election is realizing that in this increasingly urban area, there is now more worry about crime than health care. realizing that in this increasingly urban area, there is now more worry about crime the realization that in this increasingly urban area, they now worry more about crime the realization that in this increasingly urban area, voters now worry more about crime a realizing that in this increasingly urban area, there is now more concern about crime the realization that in this increasingly urban area, concerns about crime are greater
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18. Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza. influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

Topic 2: Subject Verb Agreement

With singular subjects, use the singular verb form
Is Has Was Does Keeps Goes Runs

With plural subjects, use the plural verb form

Are Have Were Do Keep Go Run

Every sentence must have a Subject and a Verb.

The subject is the noun that performs the action expressed by the verb: The DOG with the gray ears RUNS out of the house. The subject is dog, and the verb is runs. In every sentence, the subject and the verb must make logical sense together. Moreover, the subject and the verb must agree in number.

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Subject and Verb Must Both Exist If a sentence is missing the subject or the verb, the sentence is a Fragment: in other words, it is not a complete sentence! On the GMAT, an answer choice that makes the sentence a fragment is wrong. One way the GMAT disguises the error is by dropping the verb: Wrong: The electron named in 1894. Wait a minute, what about named? Named certainly looks like a verb.
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But in this context, named is NOT a Working Verb, a verb that can run a sentence by itself. Of course, we do not mean that the subject (the electron) actually named anything. Rather, something or someone else did the naming. Right: Jack NAMED the electron in 1894.

In this sentence, named is a working verb.

Or we can express the sentence this way: Right: The electron WAS NAMED in 1894. In this sentence, the words was named make up the full working verb. Within was named, the word named is a Past Participle.
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The electron named in 1894 is not a sentence.

A sentence can be a fragment in another way: it could start with a Connecting Word and contain no Main Clause (a clause that could stand alone as a sentence as is, with its own subject and verb):
Wrong: BECAUSE the dog was never mine. Wrong: WHICH will be approved tomorrow.

Because and which are connecting words.

These are also known as Subordinators, because they turn the clauses they are attached to into Subordinate Clauses, which cannot stand by themselves. To fix this sort of fragment, you either need to attach it to a main clause or drop the connecting word (and if necessary add some words, as in the second case: The plan will be approved tomorrow).

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Subject and Verb Must Make Sense Together Wrong: The development of a hydrogen car based on expected performance parameters will be able to travel hundreds of miles without refueling. At first glance, this sentence may seem okay. But be careful: The development of a hydrogen car ... will be able to travel... ? Something is wrong. It is not the development that will be able to travel. We want to say that the hydrogen car itself will be able to travel. Right: Once developed, a hydrogen CAR based on expected performance parameters WILL BE able to travel hundreds of miles without refueling.

Make sure that the subject and the verb actually have a sensible meaning together!
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Subject and Verb Must Agree In Number A singular subject requires a singular verb form:

The dog runs out of the house.

A plural subject requires a plural verb form: The dogs run out of the house. Consider this example:

The discovery of new medicines (was/were) vital to the company's growth.

What is the subject, discovery or new medicines? If you ask yourself "What is vital to the company's growth?" you may be able to talk yourself into either choice.

To find the subject, you must ignore all the words that are not the subject.
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Eliminate the clutter Near Galway, the houses on the road to Spiddle is / are gorgeous. Near Galway, the HOUSES on the road to Spiddle ARE gorgeous. When the auditors left, the executive who had been interviewed was / were glad. When the auditors left, the EXECUTIVE who had been interviewed WAS glad. Limping, the horse once considered one of the favorites was / were taken away.

LIMPING, the HORSE once considered one of the favorites WAS taken away.
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In the waning days of the emperor's life, the conquest of new lands on the borders of the empire was / were considered vital.

In the waning days of the emperor's life, the CONQUEST of new lands on the borders of the empire WAS considered vital.
The tidal forces to which an object falling into a black hole is / are subjected is / are sufficient to tear the object apart. The tidal FORCES to which an OBJECT falling into a black hole IS subjected ARE sufficient to tear the object apart.

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And vs. Additive Phrases The word and can unite two or more singular subjects, forming a compound plural subject. Joe AND his friends ARE going to the beach. Mathematics, history, AND science ARE mandatory high-school subjects.

Many other words and phrases besides and can "add" to a subject.
These words and phrases are called Additive Phrases. Joe, as well as his friends, IS going to the beach. Mathematics, in addition to history and science, IS a required subject.

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Or, Either ... Or, & Neither ... Nor In such cases, find the noun nearest to the verb, and make sure that the verb agrees in number with this noun. Neither the coach nor the players ARE going to the beach. Neither the players nor the coach IS going to the beach.

In the first example, the plural subject players is nearest to the verb, so the verb takes the plural form are. In the second example, the singular subject coach is nearest to the verb, so the verb takes the singular form is.
CAUTION: Note that when the words EITHER or NEITHER are in a sentence alone (without OR or NOR), they are considered singular and take only singular verbs.

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Collective Nouns: Almost Always Singular People: agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team

Items: baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture

In some rare circumstances, collective nouns can be considered plural (e.g., when you emphasize the individual actors, not their unity).

However, on the GMAT, collective nouns are almost always considered singular and therefore require singular verb forms. Note: in British usage, many of these nouns are normally considered plural. Not so on the GMAT!
The CROWD in the stands IS cheering loudly as the home TEAM TAKES the field. Our ARMY of a hundred thousand soldiers IS attacking the enemy. Each collective noun (crowd, team, and army) takes a singular verb form.
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Indefinite Pronouns: Usually Singular Pronouns are words that replace other nouns or pronouns. An Indefinite Pronoun is not specific about the thing to which it refers. Anyone is an example of an indefinite pronoun. The following indefinite pronouns are considered singular and require singular verb forms. Note that all the pronouns that end in -one, -body, or -thing fall into this category. Anyone, anybody, anything Each, every (as pronouns) Everyone, everybody, everything No one, nobody, nothing Someone, somebody, something Whatever, whoever

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Singular or Plural There are, however, 5 indefinite pronouns that can be either singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence. You can remember these 5 by the acronym SANAM. THE SANAM PRONOUNS: Some, Any, None, All, More / Most

How can you tell if these pronouns are singular or plural?

You should look at the noun object of the Of-phrase to determine the number of the subject. Some of the money WAS stolen from my wallet. (MONEY is singular) Some of the documents WERE stolen from the bank. (DOCUMENTS is plural) Technically, none of + plural noun can take either a singular or a plural verb form.
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Each and Every: Singular The subject of a sentence, EACH' or EVERY requires a singular verb form. The same is true for any subject preceded by the word each or every: Right: Every dog HAS paws. Right: Every dog and cat HAS paws. Right: Each of these shirts IS pretty.

You may think that the subjects of the second and third sentences are plural. However, in each case, the subject is preceded by each or every. Therefore, the subject is considered singular.

Note that each following a subject has no bearing on the verb form:
They each ARE great tennis players. Here, the plural subject THEY requires the plural verb form ARE.
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Quantity Words and Phrases The phrase THE NUMBER of takes a singular verb, but A NUMBER of takes a plural verb. THE NUMBER of hardworking students in this class IS quite large. A NUMBER of students in this class ARE hard workers.

Choose the correct option (s)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Each of the Femina Miss India (contestants / contestant) (has / have) long and lustrous hair. This is one of those (book / books) that (was / were) published last year. Either a slice of toast or eggs (is/are) what I will eat for breakfast. Neither the driver nor the passengers (was/were) aware of the seat belt law. Each of the five boys (is/are) going to attend. One of my (friend/friends) (is/are) a doctor.

7.

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Exercise
8. The feline leukemia virus, characterized by a loss of appetite, weight loss, poor coat condition, and other debilitating losses, are rampant among cats on the island. The Supreme Courts rulings on assisted suicide, which overturned two previous decisions by a United States Circuit Court, dictates that any health care official involved can be held responsible.

9.

10. They each is applying for a job. 11. Each of the five TV channels are going to broadcast the match. 12. Five TV channels each are going to broadcast the match.
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Exercise
13. Everyday, the scent of apples and cinnamon sticks permeate throughout the cider mill, causing most visitors to purchase snacks while on the tour. 14. The number of car accidents involving deer, up seventeen percent from ten years ago and continuing to rise throughout the country, have decreased in Michigans upper peninsula due to the increased use of car-mounted deer whistles by residents.

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Exercise
15. Ernest Hemingway and his contemporaries, all of whom were authors born at the turn of the century, was revered for describing the sense of aimlessness felt by their generation. 16. Once the flight landed, neither the flight attendants nor the captain, who even tried using a hammer, were able to open the emergency exit door.

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Exercise
17. At the Springfield Museum of Art, each painting and sculpture, some purchased for millions of dollars and others found discarded at garage sales, have their history displayed on a board beside the piece. 18. At the beginning of the play, each of King Lears daughtersGoner, Regan, and Corneliaappear to be jealous, treacherous, and immoral, but it is soon discovered that Cornelia is virtuous and loyal.

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Exercise
19. Because a hive of European honeybees produce much more honey than the bees can consume, beekeepers harvest the excess for human consumption. 20. Tear gas, launched in the form of grenades or aerosol cans, are irritants used by police to calm rioting crowds and unruly mobs. 21. During the debate, each of the candidatesGeorge Bush, Bill Clinton, and Ross Perotwas allowed to ask one question of each of his opponents.

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Exercise
22. Bill and Lass believed that if they were coached every day and dedicated themselves to practice, their dream of becoming a professional skater could someday be a reality. 23. Hospitals have always been thought of as a place for the sick and dying so many people avoid them, even for preventative medicine.

24. The three Supreme Court Justices appointed by the current President were judged on their trial records as an attorney and as an elected judge.
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Exercise
25. Despite their cute and cuddly image, hippopotamusesAfrica's most feared animalaccount for more human deaths than any other African creature. 26. In South America and Southern Mexico, a colony of Driver ants, known for their fiercely defensive behavior, have been known to kill immobile livestock, such as tethered cows or corralled horses.
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1.

In comparison with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the center, and typically have a less symmetric wind field. SAME with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the center, and typically has with tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a relatively broad zone located farther from the center of maximum winds, and typically have to tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the center, and typically have to tropical cyclone systems, subtropical cyclone systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds located farther from the center, and typically has

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2. Mathematical analysis of humpback whale sounds provide evidence that animals other than humans use a hierarchical structure of communication. provide evidence that animals other than humans provides evidence that animals other than humans provide evidence that an animal other than humans provides evidence that an animal other than a human provide evidence that animals, like humans,
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3.

The increase in unemployment rates, coupled with significantly increased retail prices as well as energy costs, are forcing many homeowners to look into alternative sources of fuel in order to save money on winter heating. unemployment rates, coupled with significantly increased retail prices as well as energy costs, are rates of unemployment, coupled with significant increases in retail prices and energy costs, have been unemployment rates, coupled with significant increases in both retail prices and energy costs, is unemployment rates, coupled with significantly increased retail prices as well as energy costs, is rates of unemployment, coupled with significant increases in both retail as well as energy costs, had been

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4. Hogarth's engravings, which provide a vivid portrait of eighteenth-century London, are of interest to both artists and historians. are of interest to both are interests both for are both interesting to is of interest to both is interesting for both

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5.

The amount of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like accidents caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly since regulations on manufacturing have been relaxed. SAME The amount of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like those caused by faulty wiring, have increased significantly since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed. The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like the number caused by faulty wiring, have increased significantly since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed. The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like accidents caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly since regulations on manufacturing had been relaxed. The number of car accidents caused by faulty brakes, like the number caused by faulty wiring, has increased significantly since regulations on manufacturing were relaxed.

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6.

A higher interest rate is only one of the factors, albeit an important one, that keeps the housing market from spiraling out of control, like it did earlier in the decade. keeps the housing market from spiraling out of control, like it did keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, as it did keeps the housing market from spiraling out of control, as it did keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, like keep the housing market from spiraling out of control, like it did

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7. The Daughters of the American Revolution, a volunteer service organization, admits as members only women who can prove lineal descent from a patriot of the American Revolution. admits as members only women who can prove lineal descent admit as members only women who can prove lineal descent admits as members women who can prove lineal descent only admit as members women who can prove lineal descent admits as members women who can prove lineal descent only

To indicate realistic future:

Use Present + Future combination
1. If I score 700+, I will apply to Harvard Business School. Dont write: If I will score 700+, I will apply to Harvard Business School.

To indicate the could-have-been possible past:

Use Had + Would have combination
2. If I had scored 700+, I would have applied to Harvard Business School. OR Had I scored 700+, I would have applied to Harvard Business School. Dont write: If I would have scored 700+, I would have applied to Harvard Business School.

To express wish use WERE

3. I wish he were here. 4. If I were the CEO, I would effect a lot of changes. 5. He behaves as if he were the boss. 6. She dresses as though she were a fashion model. With as if / as though, use WERE.
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To express indirect speech

Look at the sentence:
7. He said THAT the college had rusticated him and his future was dark. WRONG.
We need both these words ... said THAT ....... and THAT ......... the second THAT is compulsory. So the correct sentence will be:

He said THAT the college had rusticated him and THAT his future was dark. RIGHT.
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Consider the sentence:

8. In 1975, Sippy produced a film that became the biggest blockbuster Indian Cinema has ever seen till date. WRONG.
In 1975, Sippy produced a film that would become the biggest blockbuster Indian Cinema has ever seen till date. RIGHT.

Also, if we look at this sentence,

9. He said, "I will go to New York next week."

In indirect speech, the sentence will become:

He said that he WOULD go to New York

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The Subjunctive
Look at the following sentences. All are considered Grammatically correct. Though, seemingly, all might look absolutely WRONG.
10. 11. 12. 13. The Supreme Court decreed that he take charge of the situation. Ann suggested that he go to the Chinese restaurant. I insist that she be quiet. I suggest that he study.

14.
15. 16. 17.

Is it essential that Tanya be there?

Don recommended that John join the committee. He often asks that she bring a tape recorder to the interview sessions. I propose that Amy apologize to Mark, and we forget this ever happened.

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Contd
18.
19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Alexandra never insists that Michael call her after a date, but he does anyway.
The attorney proposed that the session be adjourned until the following day. I insist that the chairman resign! Their main demand was that the lawsuit be dropped. We insist that he do the job properly. The committee proposes that she be appointed treasurer immediately. It is essential that we be informed of your plans. It is crucial that he be there before Tom arrives. It is important that she attend the meeting. It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.

Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive

The structure is: Verb + that + the BASE form of the verb or BE

to advise to ask to command to demand to desire to insist to propose to recommend to request to suggest to urge

Ordered Mandatory Ruled Authorized Condition Imperative Important Required Proposed Necessary demand

VERB TENSES

Past Tense various situations

Only one action in the past:
Written in PAST SIMPLE (second form of the verb without HAD):
28.I watched a movie yesterday. NOT HAD WATCHED. 29.At a recent conference, the minister said NOT HAD SAID. 30.India progressed throughout the 20th century NOT HAD PROGRESSED.
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Past Tense various situations

Two actions in the past (happening simultaneously):
Both written in PAST SIMPLE (second form of the verb without HAD):
31.While he slept, I studied. 32.When he came, I left.

Past Tense various situations

Two actions in the past (happening one after the other):
The earlier action is written in PAST PERFECT (HAD + third form of the verb) and the later action is written is PAST SIMPLE (second form of the verb without HAD): 33. The flight had taken off before I reached the airport. 34. The patient had died before the doctor reached. 35. I had had (eaten) my dinner before the phone rang etc.

Present Tense Various Situations

To show a trend:
Use Present simple
36. These days, Indian cricketers spend a lot of their time endorsing products. NOT ARE SPENDING. 37. As per a recent study, men show more vulnerability to psychosomatic disorders than women. NOT ARE SHOWING.

Present Tense Various Situations

To show something that has just finished:
Use Present perfect
38. It has rained for 3 hours. 39. India has become a strong economy. 40. He has got a raise in salary.

Present Tense Various Situations

To show something that has been continuing for some time:
Use Present perfect continuous
41. It has been raining for 3 hours. 42. I have been studying since 3 pm. 43. Property values have been rising for a decade now. 44. I have been going to the gym since 1999.

Never put an adverb between to and verb

45. WRONG: He asked me to quickly give my opinion. 46. WRONG: Commodity prices can cause inflation to suddenly rise. Right: He asked me to give my opinion quickly. Right: Commodity prices can cause inflation to rise suddenly.

Active V/s Passive

RULE: Prefer the ACTIVE VOICE, unless the meaning of the sentence specifically demands the PASSIVE VOICE.
So, meaning clarity is to be checked before deciding upon ACTIVE V/s PASSIVE.

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1. The architect proposed that supplies for the new wing of the hospital, which hospital administrators hoped to open by the end of the year, will be procured from local providers. A. Same B. that supplies for the hospitals new wing, which hospital administrators hope to be opened by the end of the year, be C. that the hospitals new wings supplies, which hospital administrators hope to be opened by years end, might be D. that supplies for the new wing of the hospital, which hospital administrators hope to be open by the end of the year, were E. that supplies for the hospitals new wing, which hospital administrators hope to open by the end of the year, be
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2. If the new department store would open by Thanksgiving, it will be attracting many holiday shoppers. A. would open by Thanksgiving, it will be attracting B. would be opened by Thanksgiving, it would be able to attract C. was opening by Thanksgiving, it would be able to attract D. was to open by Thanksgiving, it also will attract E. opens before Thanksgiving, it will attract

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3. With government funding for the arts dwindling, even major orchestras would feel the pressure of trying to meet their payroll and travel costs over the past several years. A. would feel B. will feel C. have felt D. feel E. are feeling
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4. Many analysts have recently predicted that democratic institutions will develop in China, as the growth of democracy has generally followed industrial development in other countries throughout the 20th century. A. has generally followed industrial development B. generally followed industrial development C. had generally followed industrial development D. generally follows industrial development E. followed general industrial development

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5.

Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Although he had resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Although he resisted the assignment, T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, had successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Although he had resisted the assignment, Lawrence of Arabia, who successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire, was earlier known as T. E. Lawrence. T. E. Lawrence, later known as Lawrence of Arabia, successfully led an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire, although they had resisted the assignment.

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6. A recent and popular self-help book wryly notes that if adolescence was not so painful, it would have a droll comedic aspect, at least in retrospect. A. was not so painful, it B. was not so painful, they C. were not so painful, they D. were not so painful, it E. were not so painful, being one

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7.

A. B. C. D. E.

In the wake of several serious cases of mercury poisoning caused by tainted fish, the state government ordered that all lakes and streams should be tested for mercury levels. all lakes and streams should be tested for mercury levels all lakes and streams should have their mercury levels tested the mercury levels be tested for all lakes and streams the mercury levels of all lakes and streams should be tested the mercury levels of all lakes and streams be tested

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8.

A.
B. C. D. E.

While the stock market was bouncing back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession; between 2001 to 2004, typical household savings plummeted nearly 25% and the median household debt rose by a third. was bouncing back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession; between bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession, from has bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession; between has bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession; from bounced back from its 2002 low, U.S. families are still reeling from the recent recession; from

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9.

A. B. C.

D. E.

The recent global boom in the market price for scrap steel and aluminum leads to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal objects like manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs. leads to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal objects like manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs have led to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday objects such as manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs has led to a sudden increase in the number of thieves for everyday metal objects like manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs has led to a sudden rise in the theft of everyday metal objects such as manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs is leading the suddenly rising theft of everyday metal objects: manhole covers, guard rails, and empty beer kegs

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10. Rust can deteriorate a steel pipe to such an extent that it will snap easily, as though it was a twig. A. will snap easily, as though it was a twig B. will snap easily, like a twig does C. will snap easily, as though it is a twig D. might snap easily, as though it was a twig E. will snap easily, as though it were a twig

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11.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Until Antoine Lavoisier proved otherwise in the eighteenth century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood. many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood

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12. Aerugo, also known as verdigris, is the green "bloom" visible on many copper items, and is produced, like iron rust, over the course of time by the exposure of the metal to the oxygen in the atmosphere. A. visible on many copper items, and is produced B. that is visible on many copper items, and which produces C. visible on many copper items, and produces D. that is visible on many copper items, and that produces E. which is visible on many copper items, and which is produced

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13. Though most paper currency was at one time backed by fixed assets such as gold or silver, it now derives its purchasing power from a declaratory fiat of the issuing government. A. was at one time backed by B. had at one time been backed by C. was at one time backing D. had at one time backed E. has at one time been backed by

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Pronouns
The following are the pronouns errors typically tested on GMAT-SC.
Pronoun Agreement (singular / plural) Pronoun Ambiguity / Reference / Antecedent (WHICH/IT/THEY) Implied Reference (to a full clause, verb or expression) Possessive Pronouns

Pronoun Case
Pronoun Position
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Pronoun Agreement
1. 2. When a person calls take down THEIR information. Everyone here will need THEIR own pencil.

3.

Some people believe that the benefits of a healthy diet outweigh that of regular exercise.
If one is hungry, he may eat. Meg left all her class notes at school because she decided that she could do her homework without it.

4. 5.

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Pronoun Agreement
6. While the definition of Generation X is hotly debated concerning the age ranges of its members, culturists generally agree that they describe a group of adults that are self-focused, cynical, and skeptical.

7.

With the release of their fifth album, Hotel California, the band explored the pursuit of the American dream when accompanied by the loss of innocence and the presence of temptations.

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Pronoun Agreement
8. Counting each of the nine planets and their many moons, there are 162 known and accepted celestial bodies in our solar system. The bank has offered so many convenient services, such as checking by phone and online banking, that many of their customers no longer visit the bank.

9.

10. After Ben Franklin returned from his visit to the Iroquois Nation, the founding fathers created a constitution that resembled those of the Native Americans.
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Pronoun Agreement
11. During the charity auction, the organization collected over two hundred thousand dollars, nearly twice as much as they expected. 12. Because her mother was unable to support a family, Marilyn Monroe spent the first eleven years of her life with a couple who became foster parents to supplement their income. 13. Jim may not be elected CEO by the board because he does not meet their standards.
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Pronoun Agreement
14. Hippies, rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s, expressed their desire for pacifism and tolerance through peace movements, which included marches and protests. 15. Upon hearing of the chairman's illness, the committee motioned to postpone their next meeting until after he was released from the hospital.
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Pronoun Reference
16. Ill position the target, and when I nod my head, shoot at it.

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Pronoun Reference
Ohhh, nooo!

Pronouns Reference / Ambiguity

17. If the baby does not thrive on fresh milk, it should be boiled. 18. Mother told Ann that her skirt is too short. 19. At Ivy-GMAT, they provide a great deal of practice on computer. 20. The team's poor sportsmanship made all of them look like whiners. 21. The parents tried to explain the risks involved in hitch hiking, but it was useless. 22. After interviewing several nurses, I realised that it was not the career for me.
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23. Student admissions to Business school are not accepted solely based on their GMAT scores; other considerations include their undergraduate grade point averages, extracurricular activities and work experience.
24. A manatee differs from its relative, the dugong, in both size and shape; the largest difference is the dugongs tail, which is forked, unlike their paddle-shaped tail. 25. Last night on the news, they said pilot error caused the air show collision.
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26. By adding a value menu and allowing customers to choose side orders such as salads and baked potatoes, Wendys has not only lured customers away from Burger King and McDonalds, but has enticed them to choose fast-food over meals prepared by finer dining establishments.
27. From 1995 to 1999, the posted speed limit on Montana's highways was reasonable and prudent, meaning their drivers could travel at speeds in excess of 80 mph when road conditions were good.
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Implied reference
28. Susan has changed her major twice this semester. This might mean she is unsure of her career goal. 29. When John finally proposed, it was only because he had learned of her inheritance. 30. The storm lasted all weekend long, which made us feel depressed.

31. You didnt return any of his calls. This made him feel that you dont care.

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Implied reference
32. While most Americans have heard of and used Microsoft products, few people know that its name is actually short for microcomputer software. 33. During World War II, the French strategy for protection was a wall of staggered forts and lookout points called the Maginot Line, but its weakest section ultimately led to their invasion.

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Special Construction
34. Real Estate analysts have found that home prices have nearly doubled in the last ten years in the Southern California market, which is consistent with the increases in population and inflation there.

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Special Construction
Imagine the statement:
35. We like meeting people having different interests.

Here, it is not clear whether we have different interests or people One way to correct this is:
We like meeting people who have different interests.

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Special Construction
The statement
36. We test-drove a car having engine trouble. could be better written as: We test-drove a car that had engine trouble.

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Special Construction
37. When your kids reach a certain age, you must prepare to talk to them about marriage, even if youve never done it before. 38. The company, known for its benevolence and community-involvement, has donated over \$100,000 to charity over the last twenty years and will continue to do it as long as it is financially able.

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Pronoun Case
39. He runs faster than (I / me).

40. He is older than (I/me)

41. The cat licked (its / its) tail. 42. This is to be kept between you and (I / me). 43. Let Raju and (I / me) enter the room. 44. Doctor, My child and (I / me) would like to visit you tomorrow, said the lady over the phone.

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Pronoun Case
45. Janice and ME went on a picnic together. 46. The picnic was attended by Janice and I.

47. WHO are you going to marry?

48. Who are you going to take to the movies? 49. I dont understand why me and Bob always have to take out the garbage.
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Pronoun Case
50. The manager yelled at the umpire, whom had called the pitch a strike, before throwing first base into the dugout. 51. NASA has agreed to send one American astronaut to the International Space Station for a six month experiment, although who it will send has yet to be determined.

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Possessive Pronoun
52. Janes first novel was so well received that she thought of writing its sequel. 53. Janes first novel was so well received that her bank balance soared. 54. Janes first novel was so well received that the publisher thought of giving her an additional royalty of 10%, lending credence to the fact that her subsequent writings could be even more passionate.

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55. Janes first novel was so well received that her skeptical husband also started appreciating her writing style.

Possessive Pronoun
56. Kathys suitcase was so stuffed that she decided to pack another one. 57. The students work improved over the course of the semester, and they should be commended for it. 58. The players helmets need to be repainted so that they will be ready to be used at practice on Sunday. 59. Samanthas face looked blurry in the photo, but I could tell she wasnt smiling.
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Possessive Pronoun
60. Marco Polos travels, which took him over seventeen years, are documented in his book, Il Milione. 61. Although I own the bands album, I have never seen it in concert. 62. Jose's room is so messy that HIS mother calls HIM a pig.

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Placing of pronoun
63. We finally chose the coffee table towards the back of the store, which we thought would complement our living room furniture. 64. At the end of the day, the chaperones took the fourth graders back to school, who were exhausted from running after the children.

65. We finally returned all the books to the library, which we left at the front desk.

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1. In the small, closed Bedouin world, in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and their families, subsequently lowering their chances for marriage should word get out that a genetic disease runs in her family.
in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and their families, subsequently lowering their in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and her family, subsequently lowering her which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and her family, subsequently lowering her in which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing a carrier and her families, subsequently lowering her which secrets are hard to keep, there is the danger of stigmatizing carriers and their families, subsequently lowering their

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2. The Confederate general Stonewall Jackson led a feared army that idolized him; they all mourned his ironic death from friendly fire. him; they all mourned his him; they mourned his him; it mourned his him; it mourned their him, it mourned his

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3. The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose an injunction against the hardware manufacturer, arguing that they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client. they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from suffering further damages of an economic nature they should act immediately to prevent further economic damages being suffered by the client the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from suffering economic damages further immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from suffering further economic damages

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5. When housing prices climb too quickly, the Federal Reserve often responds by raising the key interest rate, which has the curious effect of actually lowering housing prices instead of raise them, as one might expect. SAME an action that has the curious effect of actually lowering housing prices rather than raising them which has the curious effect of actually lowering housing prices instead of raising them which rather than raising housing prices actually has the curious effect of lowering them an action that has the curious effect of actually lowering housing prices instead of raise them

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6. Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavymetal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there. Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
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7. During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship. to carry larger loads more slowly, determining to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined carry larger loads more slowly, which determined slowly carry larger loads which determined carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation in determining

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8. Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on unexciting merchandise as well as the weather, colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed sales of barbecue grills and lawn furniture. colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions, which slowed being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions and slowed
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9. Residents of affected coastal cities continue to lobby for funds and request supplies to aid them in recovering from oil spills occurring more than a decade ago. in recovering from oil spills occurring more than a decade ago to recover from oil spills that had occurred more than a decade ago in recovery of oil spills that occurred more than a decade ago in recovering from oil spills having occurred more than a decade ago in recovering from oil spills that occurred more than a decade ago
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10. In June of 1987, The Bridge of Trinquetaille, Vincent van Gogh's view of an iron bridge over the Rhone sold for \$20.2 million and it was the second highest price ever paid for a painting at auction. Rhone sold for \$20.2 million and it was Rhone, which sold for \$20.2 million, was Rhone, was sold for \$20.2 million, Rhone was sold for \$20.2 million, being Rhone, sold for \$20.2 million, and was

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11. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons circling Uranus, which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting the distant planet. which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in orbit around doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that orbit
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12. In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments merely substitute living allowances for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them to the United Nations. for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them assigned in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been assigned by them
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13. Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband inspired her to write several mystery novels; travelers to Egypt can still stay at the Old Cataract Hotel, the model for the hotel in one of Christie's most famous books. Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband inspired her to write several mystery novels Agatha Christie used her travels with her archaeologist husband to inspire several mystery novels Because her husband was an archaeologist, Agatha Christie was able to use their travels as inspiration for several of her mystery novels Together with her archaeologist husband, Agatha Christie was inspired to incorporate their travel into several of her mystery novels Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband served as inspiration for several of her mystery novels
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14. Created in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale where the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in 1744 the scale was reversed to its present form. in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale where the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in 1744 the scale was reversed to its present form. in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale in which the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after his death in 1744 the scale was reversed to its present form. in 1731, Anders Celsius original thermometer had a scale in which the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after he died in 1744 the scale was reversed to its present form. by Anders Celsius in 1731, his original thermometer had a scale in which the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; reversing the scale to its present form after his death in 1744. by Anders Celsius in 1731, his original thermometer had a scale where the value of 0 corresponded to the boiling point of water; after his death in 1744 the scale reversed to its present form.
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Illogical Comparisons (Apples and Oranges)

1. The damage done by the flood was worse than the fire. 2. The girl's teeth were prettier than the boy. 3. Education Hall is older than any building on campus.
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Watch out for Comparison Signals

Like Unlike Likening More than / greater than / less than etc. Different from Same as/that AS As good as / As much as etc. Compared to / with In contrast with / to Just as so Like V/s As Like V/s Such as Like V/s As if

Parallelism rules here too

When LIKE, UNLIKE, THAN, Same as, Compared with, In contrast with etc. are used, the 2 sides must be parallel.

Comparison Words Parallelism

4. Like birds, wings have evolved in some mammals. 5. Like most desks at work, Spence has his laden with pictures of his family. 6. Like a woman I once met on the bus, the hostess attire was somewhat flamboyant.

Comparison Words Parallelism

7. While the company insists that its starting salary for a man working in the executive branch of the organization be the same as a woman in equal capacity, the watchdog group found a significant gender wage gap.

Comparison Words Parallelism

8.The sixth Harry Potter book, by British author J.K. Rowling, sold a record 8.9 million copies in the first 24 hours it was on salemore than any author till date. 9.Frank's build, like his brother, is extremely broad and muscular.

Clause || clause comparison

10. The blue dress looks more flattering on you than the red one. 11. Three times more students attended the prom this year than last year. 12. Covering the floors with tiles costs twice as much as linoleum. 13. The tycoon contributed more to the candidates campaign than anyone else in the industry.

14. Sam was away on vacation longer than his friends.

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Two or more
While comparing 2, use the comparative form greater, better, worse While comparing more than 2 (3 or more than 3), use the superlative form greatest, best, worst

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More examples
15. Mary is the wealthier of the three musicians. 16. In many respects, George Bush and George W. Bush had the same political agenda, but the younger Bush, who was able to pass more legislation, had the most cooperative Congress.

17. Completed sometime between 480 and 450 B.C., the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles is much more foreboding than sixteenth century William Shakespeare.

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Usage of Just as so / as if
18. Just LIKE swimming is good exercise, skiing is a great way to burn calories.
19. It seems like the St. Louis Cardinals are going to lose again.

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Like V/s As
When comparing NOUNS, use like Like cant be followed by a VERB.
20. WRONG: Like I said earlier
21. WRONG: Bella and June, AS their mother Stacy, are extremely smart. 22. RIGHT: Speak like an American. 23. Wrong: Speak like an American does.

When comparing Actions, trends, use as As has to be followed by a VERB or a Preposition

Right: As I said earlier
Right: Bella and June, like their mother Stacy, are extremely smart. RIGHT: Speak as an American does. WRONG: Speak as an American.

Exercise (Like V/s As)

24. I look as my brother.

25. As a detective, Andrea solved the puzzle.

26. The fountain sounds as a bubbling brook. 27. Like I mentioned earlier, the test date has been moved up.

28. My dog is very skittish, like you might expect a rescued animal to be.
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Exercise (Like V/s As)

29. 30. The sliding roof closes as a dome. As with other children in her neighborhood who were home-schooled, Joan sometimes missed being in a classroom with her peers. 2006, like 2005, was a prosperous year.

31.

32.
33.

As in 2005, property values rose in 2006 as well.

In the final innings he played like a champion.

34.

Owning a car is still Dans goal, like that of his parents when they were his age.

Like V/s Such as

Like is used to highlight. The particular noun is essential. 35. Animals like lions and zebras live on the Plain.
Such as is used to give examples. The particular noun is replaceable. 36. Animals such as lions and zebras live on the Plain.

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37. According to a survey conducted by the school administration, incoming seniors planning to attend college prefer not only rigorous courses, like honors and advanced placement courses, to those that require less work, but also science and math courses to those in the humanities.

38. It was not long after the 1930s commenced that baritone singers like Bing Crosby and Russ Columbo contributed to the popularization of a type of romantic, soothing singing that came to be called crooning.

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1.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

Unlike Mozart, whose funeral was sparsely attended being buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethovens was attended by more than thirtythousand mourners and his final resting place lies in a famous Vienna cemetery near the graves of Schubert and Brahms. SAME being buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethovens funeral was attended by about thirty-thousand mourners and his final resting place was near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous Vienna cemetery and he was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethoven was given a funeral attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and his final resting place lies near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous Vienna cemetery and who was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethovens funeral was attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and his final resting place lies in a famous Vienna cemetery near the graves of Schubert and Brahms and who was buried in an unmarked common grave, Beethoven was given a funeral attended by more than thirty-thousand mourners and lies buried near the graves of Schubert and Brahms in a famous Vienna cemetery

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2. Based on recent box office receipts, the public's appetite for documentary films, like nonfiction books, seems to be on the rise. A. like nonfiction books B. as nonfiction books C. as its interest in nonfiction books D. like their interest in nonfiction books E. like its interest in nonfiction books

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3.

A.

B.
C. D. E.

More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one

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4. Archaeologists have shown that ingesting lead in drinking water was a significant health hazard for the ancient Romans, like that of modern Americans. A. like that of modern Americans B. as that for modern Americans C. just as modern Americans do D. as do modern Americans E. as it is for modern Americans

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5. Like many of his contemporaries did, Bob Dylan wrote songs that became anthems for a generation of antiwar activists. A. Like many of his contemporaries did, Bob Dylan wrote songs B. Bob Dylan wrote songs like many of his contemporaries C. As did many of his contemporaries, Bob Dylan wrote songs D. Like the songs of his contemporaries, Bob Dylan wrote songs E. As did many of Bob Dylans contemporaries, he wrote songs
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6.

A.

B. C.

D.

E.

Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert doescomputers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these. as an expert doescomputers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan like an expertcomputers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like

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7.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

During the rule of Emperor Claudius, which was known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded any city in the Roman Empire. SAME known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome was exceeded by no other known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, ancient Rome exceeded any known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any other

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8. Studies of test scores show that watching television has a markedly positive effect on children whose parents speak English as a second language, as compared to those who are native English speakers. A. to those who are B. with children who are C. with D. to those whose parents are E. with children whose parents are
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9. While Jackie Robinson was a Brooklyn Dodger, his courage in the face of physical threats and verbal attacks was not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused to move to the back of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. A. not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused B. not unlike Rosa Parks, who refused C. like Rosa Parks and her refusal D. like that of Rosa Parks for refusing E. as that of Rosa Parks, who refused

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10. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not normally found in the organ in which the tumor appears. A. because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone B. because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are C. because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues D. in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is E. in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues
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11. As business grows more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly successful in the job market. A. majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly B. who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more and more C. who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being increasingly D. who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming more and more E. having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being increasingly
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SC Error Type 6: MODIFIERS

Focus on the following sentences: 1. Using the latest technology, the mechanical problem was identified quickly. 2. Upon leaving the counter, the cashier handed the customer a receipt. 3. Locked in a vault for 50 years, the owner of the coins decided to sell them. 4. Sailing up the river, the Statue of Liberty was seen. 5. Walking back from the village, my wallet was lost. 6. At the age of twenty, my father let me drive his car. 7. Unskilled in complex math, Bill's score on the entrance exam was poor.
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So the rule is:

After the comma, have the subject of the preceding part of the sentence As we can see, this error is called MODIFIER as it modifies (changes) the intended meaning of the sentence.
The meaning of the sentence can also be affected by the placement of a word or a group of words. E.g.,

Lets see these sentences

8. Two cars were reported stolen by the police yesterday. 9. Do not sit in the chair without being fully assembled. 10. The patient was referred to a psychologist with several emotional problems. 11. The store sold inflatable childrens toys. 12. We provide restrooms for ladies that are clean and comfortable. 13. I lost my hat running down the street.
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1. Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable. A. SAME B. the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials C. according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing D. the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials E. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

2.

A. B.

C.

D. E.

Discouraged by new data that show increases in toxic emissions from domestic factories, searches for alternative investment opportunities are being conducted by shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing companies. SAME searches are being conducted by shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing companies who are looking for alternative investment opportunities shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing companies had begun searching for investment opportunities outside of the manufacturing industry the nations leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities for its shareholders shareholders of the nations leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3.

A. B. C. D. E.

Hailed as a key discovery in the science of evolution, the fossils of a large scaly creature resembling both a fish and a land-animal provide evidence of a possible link in the evolutionary chain from water-based to landbased organisms. the fossils of a large scaly creature resembling both a fish and a land-animal provide evidence of a large scaly creature resembling both a fish and a land-animal provides fossils that are evidence a large scaly creature, whose fossils resemble both a fish and a land-animal, provides evidence of the fossils of a large scaly creature, which resembles both a fish and a land-animal, provides evidence of the fossils of a large scaly creature resemble both a fish and a land-animal and provide evidence of

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

By applying optimization techniques commonly used to plan operations, it is possible to determine how much effort ought to be devoted to each of a companys products in order to meet its goals in both the short and long terms. SAME a companys managers can determine how much effort should be dedicated to each of the companys products in order to meet its short and long term goals it can be determined by company managers how much effort ought to be devoted to each of the companys products in order to meet its goals, both short and long term it may be possible for company managers to determine how much effort should be dedicated to each of these products in order to meet the companys short and long term goals managers at a company can determine how much effort ought to be dedicated to each of these products in order to meet the companys goals in both the short and long term

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

5.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

In order to properly evaluate a patients state of mind and gain informed consent prior to surgery, a substantial period of time must be spent with the operating physician by the patient to become fully aware of the pros and cons of undergoing a surgical procedure. SAME the operating physician and the patient must spend a substantial amount of time together, thus ensuring full awareness of the pros and cons of undergoing the surgical procedure the patient must spend a substantial amount of time with his or her operating physician, thus ensuring that he or she has been made fully aware of the pros and cons of undergoing the surgical procedure the operating physician must spend a substantial amount of time with the patient, thus ensuring that the patient is fully aware of the pros and cons of accepting the undergoing procedure the operating physician must ensure that he or she is fully aware of the pros and cons of undergoing a surgical procedure by spending a substantial amount of time with the patient

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6. Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C., worshipped a goddess known in Latin as Bona Dea, "the good goddess." A. Based on accounts of various ancient writers B. Basing it on various ancient writers' accounts C. With accounts of various ancient writers used for a basis

D. By the accounts of various ancient writers they used

E. Using accounts of various ancient writers
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7.

Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport. huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge palace and temple clusters

A. B. C. D. E.

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8.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

The physicist Richard Feynman presented a comprehensive introduction to modern physics designed for undergraduate students in a two-year course. SAME For undergraduate students, the physicist Richard Feynman presented a two-year course, being a comprehensive introduction to modern physics. A comprehensive introduction was in a two-year course by the physicist Richard Feynman presenting to undergraduate students an introduction to modern physics. Presenting a comprehensive introduction, the physicist Richard Feynman introduced modern physics in a two-year course designed for undergraduate students. In a two-year course designed for undergraduate students, the physicist Richard Feynman presented a comprehensive introduction to modern physics.

SC Topic 7: Miscellaneous Errors

Idioms / Prepositions Quantity (Numerical) Expressions Adjective V/s Adverb Punctuation Concision (shortest possible sentence) Meaning Clarity

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Idioms are expressions that are the way the are There can be no explanations / reasoning for idioms You have to memorize a list, e.g.,
Forbid to do NOT from doing Cope with NOT cope up with Comprise NOT comprise of Mistake A for B NOT mistake A as B Consider NOT consider to be or consider as The list continues list in GMAT Book (have to memorize more than 50 idioms)

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Numerical Idioms
For countable
Few Many Fewer Number

For uncountable
Little Much Less Amount

GREATER can be used to denote number alone to show quantity or percentage, use MORE
Avoid Equivalent; Use as many / as much
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

1.

The botanist was pleased to see that much of the recently planted and heavily fertilized flowers were in bloom. Although the area had little traffic and pedestrians, the developers were convinced that the restaurant should be opened in the district; it was only a matter of time before urban sprawl would bring residents and visitors alike. The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.

2.

3.

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4.

A large percentage of New York City residents are native from other countries.
During the Civil War, a fierce disagreement in Kentucky took place among those residents who supported the election of Abraham Lincoln with those who wanted to secede with Jefferson Davis. The number of volunteers at the Relay for Life increased by more than twice from 2002 to 2005. The newly enacted term limits prohibited the popular city council chairperson to run for office during the next election.

5.

6.

7.

Idiom Mixed-bag

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1. In the past few months, there has been extensive dispute over if fare hikes should be a first or last recourse in improving the transit system. A. over if fare hikes should be a first or last recourse B. about if fare hikes are a first or last recourse C. about hiking fares as being a first or last recourse D. over whether fare hikes should be a first or last recourse E. concerning fare hikes and whether to raise them as a first or last recourse
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2. In a seminar paper delivered at the annual American Psychological Association conference, Dr. Spagnoli distinguished pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and occasionally severe without their constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar disorders. A. pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and occasionally severe without their constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar disorders B. bipolar disorders and pronounced alterations in mood, occurring frequently and occasionally severely, without constituting a clinical illness C. pronounced alterations in mood, perhaps frequent and occasionally severe without constituting a clinical illness, and bipolar disorders D. between pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and occasionally severe without constituting a clinical illness, from bipolar disorders E. between pronounced alterations in mood, which may be frequent and occasionally severe without constituting a clinical illness, and bipolar disorders

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3.

A. B.

C. D.

E.

In the conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians, the refusal of each side to acknowledge the other as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than is any other issue. the refusal of each side to acknowledge the other as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than that the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem as the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than that the refusal of each side to acknowledge another as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem than the refusal of each side to acknowledge each other as a legitimate national movement is closer to the heart of the problem as

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4.

A.
B. C. D. E.

The first decision to be made by a person being considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if to submit to a drug test. being considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if to submit considered for employment at Reven-Tech is if he or she should submit being considered for employment at Reven-Tech is whether submission considered for employment at Reven-Tech is whether, when submitted considered for employment at Reven-Tech is whether to submit

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

5.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Yellowstone National Park officials have begun to fine those campers who fail to lock their cars at night, exposing their cars and other campers with scavenging bears. night, exposing their cars and other campers with night and expose their cars and other campers toward night, and expose their cars and others campers with night and who expose their cars and other campers to night, by exposing their cars and other campers to

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

6. Deforestation significantly alters the population of an area by creating a habitat in which few species and vegetation can survive. A. in which few species and vegetation can survive B. in which few species and little vegetation can survive C. where little species and vegetation can survive D. in which fewer species than vegetation can survive E. where little species and few vegetation can survive
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

7.

A. B. C. D. E.

One idea for Social Security reform was to disallow payments for those with a certain level of income; although the idea was rejected, citizens can choose to refuse social security payments for private sources of income, whether derived by pension funds or personal savings, if they want. for private sources of income, whether derived by pension funds or personal savings in favor of private sources of income, whether derived from pension funds or personal savings for private sources of income, whether derived from pension funds or personal savings and use private sources of income, derived either by pension funds or personal savings rather than private sources of income, whether derived from pension funds or personal savings

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

8. Local reporters investigating the labor dispute reported that only half of the workers in the plant were covered by the union health plan; at least as much as a hundred and more others had not any health insurance whatsoever. A. at least as much as a hundred and more others had not any B. at least as much as more than a hundred others had no C. more than a hundred others had no D. much more than a hundred others had no E. more than a hundred others did not have
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

9. A. B. C.

D.
E.

The numbers of internet users has grown by more than a 10 percent increase in the past year. The numbers of internet users has grown by more than a 10 percent increase in the past year. The number of internet users has grown by greater than 10 percent in the past year. The numbers of internet users have grown by more than 10 percent in the past year. The number of internet users grew by more than 10 percent in the past year. The number of internet users grew by greater than 10 percent in the past year.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

10. As a result of the Black Death, the plague that afflicted Europe in 1348-49, as many as half the population died and less than half the work force remained in certain cities. A. as many as half the population died and less than half the work force remained B. as much as half the population died and fewer than half the work force remained C. as many as half the people died and less than that remained in the work force D. as much as half the population died and less than half the work force remained E. as many as half the population and less than half the work force died or remained
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

11.

According to the enrollment statistics published by U.S. medical schools, the number of female medical students is equivalent to the number of male medical students currently enrolled in medical school. the number of female medical students is equivalent to the number of male medical students currently enrolled in medical school as many female as male students are currently enrolled in medical school the number of female students is as many as that of male students currently enrolled in medical school as great as the number of female is the number of male students currently enrolled in medical school female and male students are currently enrolled in equal numbers in medical school

A. B. C. D. E.

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1. The main tourist attraction in Dorchester-onThames, a rather tiny village west of London, is the surprising large abbey; built 10 the seventh century, it remains of one of the largest churches in Oxford. 2. Studies have shown that first-born children learn speech faster, but speak quieter, than children born later to the same parents.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3.

Patrons reported that they would visit the restaurant more frequent than they currently do, provided the management hired an efficient wait-staff and offered more nightly specials. Many celebrities, such as Britney Spears, Tom Cruise, and Jessica Simpson, have secretly vacationed on Turtle Island in Fiji an exclusively tropical resort known for its privacy and beauty.

4.

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1. Carbon-14 dating reveals that the megalithic monuments in Brittany are nearly 2,000 years as old as any of their supposed Mediterranean predecessors. A. as old as any of their supposed B. older than any of their supposed C. as old as their supposed D. older than any of their supposedly E. as old as their supposedly

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

2.

A.
B. C. D. E.

Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body can constantly change its genes to fashion a seeming unlimited number of antibodies. each specifically targeted at an invading microbe or foreign substance. seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically to seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically targeted at seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them targeted specifically to seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at

WORDINESS / REDUNDANCY V/s

CONCISION
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Wordiness
1. 2. The value of the stock rose by a 10% increase. The three prices sum to a total of \$11.56.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Being excited about her upcoming graduation, Kelsey could barely focus on her final exams.
Jane made an attempt not to see her new job as ideal. Past experience reveals that cancer patients rarely ever exhibit the exact same symptoms. Tom and his boss have differences over the way in which the company should invest its money.

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Wordy Expression after the conclusion of at this point in time despite the fact that due to the fact that excessive number of in order to in the event that is in a position to regardless of the fact that

Concise Correction after now although, even though, despite because, because of, since, for, as too many to if can although, despite

Some Redundant Expressions

advance planning all year round annually each year biography of his life close proximity customary habit end result essential requirement exactly identical forward progress free gift group together honest truth joint cooperation meet together necessary requirement new breakthrough past history postpone until later protest against reduced down repeat again reverse back rising increase sharing the same temporary loan terrible disaster usual habit wealthy millionaire

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

1. As a result of having nostrils, called nares, connected to olfactory bulbs that go back to the brain, sharks are capable of smelling even a few molecules of blood in the water. A. As a result of having B. As a result of their having C. Because they have D. Because of having E. Because of their having

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2. A. B. C. D. E.

It was anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that led to the discovery of Neptune. It was anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that It was the orbit of Uranus showing anomalies that They were anomalies in the orbit of Uranus that The orbit of Uranus being anomalous was what The anomalies in the orbit of Uranus was what

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

3.

A. B. C. D. E.

While the immune system helps the human bodys trying to defend itself from a virus or disease that is harming it, certain immunodeficiency disorders like AIDS attack the immune system itself and disable its healing mechanisms. bodys trying to defend itself from a virus or disease that is harming it bodys tries to defend itself from a virus or disease harming it body to try to defend itself from a virus or disease that harm it body to attempt to try to defend itself from a virus or disease that is harming it body to try to defend itself from a virus or disease that is harming it

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4.

A. B.

C.

D.

E.

After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it would be forced to accept a one billion dollar loss, an expense that would have forced its main competitor to declare bankruptcy if it had suffered such a loss. SAME As the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it accepted a one billion dollar loss; forcing its main competitor to declare bankruptcy if it had suffered such a loss. After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, its one billion dollar loss would have to be accepted; such a loss would have forced its main competitor to declare bankruptcy. After the company recalled one of its best-selling products, it was forced to accept a one billion dollar loss; its main competitor would have been forced to declare bankruptcy if it had suffered such a loss. When the company recalled one of its best-selling products, a one billion dollar loss it was forced to accept, an expense that would have forced its main competitor into bankruptcy.

Punctuation: comma / semicolon / colon

A comma is used to separate two parts of a sentence at least one part is dependent on the other part for its meaning. 1. Though he is disabled, he is full of passion. A Semicolon is used to separate two parts of a sentence that can stand independently of each other (i.e., each has a subject and a verb)

2.

Jack and John are inseparable; they do everything together.

A Colon is used to start a string of examples: the left side must stand alone: 3. I love many kinds of music: classical, rock, and pop.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Punctuation
4. 5. The night before the GMAT, Ken stayed up until midnight; which is why he did so poorly on the test. The worst pandemic in history, the bubonic plague swept through Eurasia during the 1300s and killed over 200 million; nearly one in three people. Despite the fact that it has a duck-shaped bill and lays eggs, the platypus is not a bird; rather the most unique mammal in Australia and quite possible the world. Barbara Steisand, whose career spans four decades, has received ten Grammy awards, including three for best Female Playback Singer; 1964, 1965 and 1966.

6.

7.

Meaning Clarity

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Meaning Clarity
The meaning of the sentence should make sense. For example: 1. ONLY those passengers carrying an Identification will be allowed to board the plane. Right Meaning Passengers carrying ONLY an Identification will be allowed to board the plane. Wrong Meaning
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

2. The Battle of Gettysburg, considered the turning point of the Civil War, saw onethird of its participants killed and injured.

3. In The Matrix, Neo can choose either the blue pill, which will allow him to forget all that he has learned and return to life as he knew it, and the red pill, which will keep him in reality.

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4.

Edgar Allan Poe attended the University of Virginia and West Point Military Academy and was expelled from both of them; he incurred gambling debts at Virginia and intentionally neglected his duties at West Point.

5.

Global warming has already made the Hudson River a seeming fragile ecosystem, the introduction of invasive species has the potential to destroy nearly all of the aquatic plants and animals that inhabit the river.

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

1.

A.
B. C. D. E.

Several of the canvases that were singed and incinerated in yesterdays museum fire were painted by a famous Russian artist. Several of the canvases that were singed and incinerated in yesterdays museum fire were In yesterdays museum fire, several of the canvases that had been singed and incinerated were Yesterday several of the canvases that were singed or incinerated in the museum fire were Several of the canvases that were singed and incinerated in yesterdays museum fire had been Several of the canvases that were singed or incinerated in yesterdays museum fire had been

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

2.

A. B.
C.

D. E.

Some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local pet sanctuaries by city health officials and exterminated last year were collected as part of the citys initiative to protect local residents from dog attacks. SAME Some of the wild dogs that the local pet sanctuaries received and city health officials exterminated have been Some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local pet sanctuaries or exterminated by city health officials last year had been Last year some of the wild dogs that were distributed to local pet sanctuaries or exterminated by city health officials made Last year city health officials distributed to local pet sanctuaries as well as exterminated some of the wild dogs that had been

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3. The company claimed to have created a backpack so capacious that it could simultaneously hold four textbooks, a laptop computer, and necessary school supplies and so light and well-designed that even a seventhgrader could wear it comfortably. A. supplies and so light B. supplies so light C. supplies, and it was so light D. supplies, yet being so light E. supplies, yet so light
Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

4.

A.
B. C. D. E.

Commercial pilots receive their training from regional airlines with increasing frequency, often preferring to avoid the expense of the requirements of training offered by private companies and the service required by the Navy or Air Force. the requirements of training offered by private companies requirements offered for training by private companies the training requirements of private companies the training offered by private companies private companies training

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

5. Doctors in the early twentieth century commonly mistook endometriosis as simple menstrual cramps and informed women that there was no medical cure for their condition. A. endometriosis as simple menstrual cramps B. endometriosis for simple menstrual cramps C. simple menstrual cramps for endometriosis D. endometriosis to be simple menstrual cramping E. endometriosis and simple menstrual cramps

Sandeep Gupta Ivy-GMAT, Koramangala Bangalore. sandeepgupta01@gmail.com, 9739561394

Further Resources: 1. Preparation for SC (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) 2. Sandeep SC Notes (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) 3. Manhattan GMAT SC Guide 4th Edition 4. 700-800 SC Questions a set of 150 GMAT SC Questions (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve 5. GMAT latest SC questions a set of 277 GMAT SC Questions (by Sandeep Gupta (Ivy-GMAT)) Must Solve 6. OG 12, 11, 10, OG Verbal Review 1st and 2nd Editions 7. Platinumgmat.com (for Idiom review) 8. GMAT-Prep Verbal Forum Questions from ManhattanGMAT.com 9. 1000 SC (not necessary, though)