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# Project In Math III

&
ITS FORMULAS

## What is surface area and its volumes?

1.) Surface Area Of Sphere. 2.) Surface Area Of Cone. 3.) Surface Area Of Cylinder. 4.) Surface Area of An Ellipsoid.

## 5.) Surface Area Of a Cuboids

6.) Surface Area Of A Cube

## What is Surface Area?

Surface area is the total area of the faces and curved surface of a solid figure. Mathematical description of the surface area is considerably more involved than the definition of arc length or polyhedral (objects with flat polygonal faces) the surface area is the sum of the areas of its faces. Smooth surfaces, such as a sphere, are assigned surface area using their representation as parametric surfaces. This definition of the surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double integration.

1.) Sphere
What is a Sphere?

A sphere is a three-dimensional space, such as the shape of a football. A sphere is a body bounded by a surface whose every point is equidistant (i.e. the same distance) from a fixed point, called the centre or the origin of the sphere.
Like a circle in three dimensions, all points from the center are constant. The distance from the center to any points on boundary is known as the radius of the sphere. The maximum straight distance through the sphere is known as the diameter of the sphere. One-half of a sphere is called a hemisphere.

## Spheres Surface Area Formula:

Where r is the radius.
SA = 4 r2

## Where d is the diameter.

SA = d2

Sample Problems:
What is the total surface area of a sphere whose radius is 5.5 meters? Surface area of the sphere: SA = 4 r2 SA = 4 (5.5)2 SA = 4 3.14 30.25 SA = 379.94

## Thus the surface area of the sphere is 379.94m2.

Find the surface area of a sphere whose diameter is 12cm? Surface area of the sphere: SA = d2 SA = 122 SA = 3.14 144 SA = 452.16cm2 Thus the surface area of the sphere is 379.94 m2.

2.) Cone
What is a Cone?

A cone is an n-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a base (usually flat and circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.

Formally, it is the solid figure formed by the locus of all straight line segments that join the apex to the base. The term "cone" is sometimes used to refer to the surface or the lateral surface of this solid figure (the lateral surface of a cone is equal to the surface minus the base). The axis of a cone is the straight line (if any), passing through the apex, about which the base has a rotational symmetry.

SA = r2 + rl

## The area of the curved /lateral surface of a cone = rl

Where, r is the radius h is the height l is the slant height

Sample Problems:
A cone has a radius of 3cm and height of 5cm, find total surface area of the cone.

5cm

not given

3cm

Solution:

To begin with we need to find slant height of the cone, which is determined by using Pythagoras, since the cross section is a right triangle. l2 = h2 + r2 l2 = 52 + 32 l2 = 25 + 9 l = (34) l = 5.83 cm

So, the total surface area of the cone is: SA = r2 + rl SA = r (r + l) SA = 3 (3 + 5.83) SA = 83.17 cm2

## Therefore, the total surface area of the cone is 83.17cm2

The slant height of a cone is 20cm. the diameter of the base is 15cm. Find the curved surface area of cone.

not given

20cm

15cm

## Solution: Given that, Slant height: l = 20cm Diameter: d = 15cm

Step 1: Find the radius: r = d/2 = 15/2 = 7.5cm Step 2: Curved surface area = rl CSA = rl CSA = 7.5 20 CSA =471.24cm2 So, the curved surface area of the cone = 471.24cm2

Height and radius of the cone is 5 yard and 7 yard. Find the lateral surface area of the given cone.

## not given 5 yard

7 yard

Solution:
Step 1: Slant height of the cone: l2 = h2 + r2 l2 = 72 + 52 l2 = 49 + 25 l = 8.6 Step 2: Lateral surface area: LSA = rl LSA = 3.14 7 8.6 LSA =189.03 yd2 So, the lateral surface area of the cone = 189.03 squared yard.

3.) Cylinder
What is a Cylinder?

A cylinder (from Greek kulindros, "roller, tumbler") is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, the axis of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder. The surface area and the volume of a cylinder have been known since deep antiquity.

## Cylinders Surface Area Formula:

A = 2r2 + 2rh or simply, A = 2r(r + h)

## Where, r is the radius h height

Sample Problems:
Find the surface area of a cylinder with a radius of 4 cm, and a height of 3 cm. 4 cm

3 cm

Solution:

SA = 2 r2 + 2 r h SA = 2 3.14 42 + 2 3.14 4 3 SA = 6.28 16 + 6.28 12 SA = 100.48 + 75.36 SA = 175.84 Surface area = 175.84 cm2

4.) Ellipsoid
What is an Ellipsoid?

The ellipsoid got its name because its cross sections parallel to the xy, xz and yz planes are all ellipses. It has the interesting property that it is regular everywhere except at the north and the south poles.

## Ellipsoids Surface Area Formula:

A prolate spheroid has surface area defined as:

where,

is the angular eccentricity of the prolate spheroid and e = sin() is its (ordinary) eccentricity.