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Mental Health and Disorders

Chapter Seven

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

MENTAL HEALTH AND DISORDERS

You can handle depression the same way you handle a tiger if depression is creeping up and must be faced, learn something about the nature of the beast. You may escape without a mauling.
R. W. Shepherd

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

The American College Health Association Survey 2010 Statistics


45% of college students say they are depressed 10% clam they experience suicidal thoughts 44% report binge drinking 19% felt things were helpless at some point

23% felt overwhelmed by all they had to do


21% felt lonely 23% felt very sad 13% felt so depressed it was difficult to function 17% felt overwhelming anxiety 17% felt overwhelming anger

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

MENTAL HEALTH
Mind, body, and culture
Mental health
The successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activity The influence of the mind on the way the body functions

Psychosomatic

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Mental Health

Basic mental health definitions


and theories Motivation
task

The state of being energized to perform a A stable set of beliefs about ones qualities
and attributes

Self concept

Self esteem

How one feels, good or bad, about ones


qualities and attributes

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Mental Health
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Self-Esteem is a combination of selfimage, ideal self, and Pygmalion-self Self Image: what we perceive ourselves to be Ideal-self: how we want to be Pygmalion-self: our perception of what we believe other people think of us.

I am not what I think I am I am not what you think I am I am what I think you think I am
2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Self Talk
The encouragement or criticism you give yourself The Law of Positive Self-Talk states: You can change who you are by changing what you say when you talk to your mind. When do you find yourself talking to yourself?

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Ways to Improve Self Esteem


Good Friends Focus on the positive aspects about yourself Supportive self-talk Work toward accomplishments rather than perfection Mistakes are learning opportunities Try new activities Set goals Exercise regularly Volunteer Accept that which you cannot change.

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Mental Health
Characteristics of mental health

such as fear, anger, love, jealousy, guilt, or anxiety They have lasting and satisfying relationships They are comfortable with others They can laugh at themselves with others They have respect for themselves and others They can accept lifes disappointments They can meet lifes demands and handle problems They can make their own decisions They shape their environment and adjust to it when necessary

They feel good about themselves They do not become overwhelmed by emotions

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health

Dr. John Guthman, Hofstra Univ. NY Published study in Aug 2010 3256 students studied over 10 years Showed average college student levels of depression and anxiety remained constant Showed moderate to severe depression in college students increased from 34% in 1998 to 41% in 2009. Most had pre-existing issues
2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health


Study found that average student had milder symptoms of depression and anxiety Those student with more severe forms of depression were: Socially isolated Under stress On Medication Identity Disorientation: Familiar people are no longer present to reinforce identity created by student Loss of sense of self Loss of confidence Increase in alcohol/drug use or abuse

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health

Drug abuse
health

A quick fix and counterproductive Very common problem related to mental

Violence

Serious mental health issue Largely preventable Violence is related to large social problems Eating disorders A response to unmet needs Related to self-esteem or self-image Socially related: perfect body

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health

Eating disorders
Anorexia nervosa: self-starvation
Fear of being fat Restricting eating so body weight falls below
15% of a healthy weight Distorted body image; a perception of obesity In women: absence of three consecutive menstrual cycles

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health

Eating disorders
Bulimia nervosa

Episodes of binge eating Loss of control when eating Overly concerned with body shape and size Self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives or diuretics for weight loss and control Dieting, fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gains

Binge eating disorder

Characterized by excessive overeating

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Mental and Personality Disorders

Anxiety disorders

Anxiety: excessive worry and concern Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD):


constant and uncontrollable worry or concern about everything Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): anxiety disorder occurring after experiencing a frightening event Panic disorders: sudden, overwhelming attacks of fear Phobias: fears of specific objects or events Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): repetition of an act over and over

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Mental and Personality Disorders


Mood disorders: depression and
mania Depression: feelings of worthlessness,
sadness, and apprehension Mania: characterized by extremely elevated mood and hyperactive behaviors Dysthymia: depression that has long-term but lesser effects than major depression Bipolar disorder: mood swings between mania and depression Seasonal affective disorder: depression experienced during a specific season of the year (usually winter)

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Mental and Personality Disorders

Paranoid Personality Disorder


Excessive distrust and suspicion of
others

Schizophrenia
Mental disorder Distorted thoughts Atypical communication Inappropriate emotion Abnormal motor behavior

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Treatment Options?
Why Students Dont Seek Services For students, stigma remains the most significant barrier to seeking treatment. Specifically, according to a 2006 study, students cited embarrassment as the number one reason someone wouldnt seek help. Only 23 percent would be comfortable with a friend knowing they were getting help for emotional issues. Students also might not seek help because of concerns over confidentiality and finances and the fear that accepting theyre struggling will mean they cant lead a productive life. Such concerns cause students to keep their emotional troubles to themselves, reinforcing the stigma and making life far more difficult than it need be. Although the Internet shouldnt replace an evaluation with a therapist or treatment, reputable Web sites can serve as good sources of information. In addition to Psych Central, consult these sites:
Healthy Minds, provided by the American Psychiatric Association, has information on mental health, including prevention, symptoms and treatment and tips for students and parents. ULifeline offers a screening tool, developed by the Duke University Medical Center, and contact information for university counseling centers. Half of Us features inspirational interviews with artists and athletes along with information on mental health. You can also access the screening tool here. The JED Foundation provides resources and research on mental health and suicide prevention for parents, students and colleges. Campus Calm gives high school and college students the tools to combat stress.

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Treatment Options?

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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Treatment Options? Outreach Workshops found on


http://www.counseling.gatech.edu

Stamps Health Service Counseling Website


Overcoming the Stressors of Perfectionism & Procrastination Don't Believe Everything You Think: Using Logic to Overcome Stress Managing Stress for Ethnic Minorities Mind Matters: Using Psychology to Enhance Your Academic and Test Performance Be at the Top of Your Game: Principles of Relaxation and Stress Management from Sports Psychology A Mind-Body Approach to Stress Reduction

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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