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Valves, Pumps, and Fans

References
INE, Chapter 28, pp. 477-501 PNE,
Chapter 18, pp. 8-10 - 18-20; Chapter 19, pp. 19-1 - 19-19

Objectives
Basic construction and application of valves used in the propulsion plant. Various methods of valve operation. Operation and application of the different pumps found in the propulsion plant. Operation and application of centrifugal and axial fans.

Valves

VALVES
PURPOSE: to control the amount & direction of fluid flow through the lines of a piping system

Valve Components
Valve body Disc Seat Bonnet

Valve Components
Packing Packing gland/nut Stem Wheel/Operating mechanism

VALVES
there are 2 basic valve types:
A. Stop valves - used to shut off, or partially shut off (throttle), the flow of fluid. Controlled by movement of the valve stem itself. B. Check valves: used to permit flow of fluid in only one direction/controlled by fluid movement

Valve Types
Globe valves Gate valves Stop Valves Ball valves Butterfly valves Needle valves Swing and Lift Check Valves Check Valves Stop Check Valves Special-Purpose Valve Relief Valve

STOP VALVES
GLOBE GATE BUTTERFLY BALL

GLOBE VALVE
used for flow control ADV: excellent throttling characteristics DISADV: large pressure drop across the valve due to the flow restriction (thus more pumping power is required to move the fluid through the system.)

GATE VALVES
used in systems where minimal flow restrictions are necessary used as cutout or isolation valves ADV: small pressure drop across valve DISADV: poor throttling characteristics

BUTTERFLY VALVES
used as cutout/isolation valves ADV: quick-acting low pressure drop across the valve, has adequate throttling characteristics DISADV: only used for low press/low temp systems due to force involved in valve operation

BALL VALVE
Ball with hole through it rotates in a pipe Used for isolation in sanitary and sea water systems ADV: Low pressure drop, fast operating, can be throttled DISADV: Expensive, heavy, poor throttling

Swing and Lift Check Valves


Check Valves
Allow fluid flow in one direction

Swing check valve


Disc swings through an arc,

Lift-check valve
Disc moves up and down

SWING CHECK
Simple design Allows flow in one direction Can not be used as an isolation valve

Stop Check Valves


Internals similar to a globe valve Disc is not attached to the stem Valve stem - long enough to hold the disc firmly against the seat Stem raised - the disc can be opened by pressure on the inlet side

STOP CHECK
Can be used as an isolation valve as well as a check valve

RELIEF VALVES
special type of valve designed to operate automatically in a system overpressure condition (a protective feature in most systems) most relief valves use an adjustable spring to determine lift pressure. System pressure opposes spring pressure, and when pressure is high enough, the valve will open against spring pressure and port the fluid to another location (typically, overboard for safe fluids)

RELIEF VALVES

Valve Operating Devices


Manual Hydraulic Motor (electric and air operated) Solenoid

Pumps

PUMPS
Pumps are mechanical devices used to cause fluid to flow in a piping system. Pumps are required in all fluid systems to make up for losses of usable energy in the system caused by flow and they deliver fluid from a low pressure area to a high pressure area.

CAVITATION
The work done on a system by a pump is converted into flow work of the working fluid and is seen as a rise in pressure of the fluid. All pumps require a minimum pressure at the pump suction to prevent the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles. These bubbles are caused when saturation conditions exist in the pump, and the these bubbles collapsing and impinging on pump internal components is called cavitation .

TERMS OF INTEREST
Pressure head - The vertical distance between the levels of a liquid. It is a measure of the pressure exerted by a column or body of liquid due to the weight of the liquid. For a liquid to be pumped, this pressure head must be overcome before there will be flow through a system

Pressure Head
Pump Below Surface
Friction Loss
Total Head Differential

Net Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Output Head

Static Suction Pressure Head

TERMS OF INTEREST
Discharge head - The pressure a pump can develop on its discharge. As long as discharge head is greater than system pressure head, there will be flow.

Pressure Head
Pump Below Surface
Friction Loss
Total Head Differential

Net Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Output Head

Static Suction Pressure Head

TERMS OF INTEREST
Suction head - Also called suction lift. The vertical distance between the fluid to be pumped and the pumps suction position over/within the fluid. It is the pressure head that must be overcome before fluid can flow into the pumps suction.

NPSH is the measure of the pressure at the pump suction (eye of the impeller.) Minimum NPSH is the value of NPSH required to prevent cavitation.

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)

Pressure Head
Pump Below Surface
Friction Loss
Total Head Differential

Net Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Total Output Head

Static Suction Pressure Head

Pressure Head
Supply Below Pump
Friction Loss
Total Head Differential Static (Discharge) Pressure Head

Net Static Head

Static Suction Lift

TYPES OF PUMPS
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP
Rotary Reciprocating Variable Stroke Screw

NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
Centrifugal Propeller Jet Pumps Fans

A pump designed to pump a fixed volume of fluid for each stroke or rotation of the pump. Roughly the same volume of fluid will leave the pump no matter what pressure the pump is discharging against. System flow rate varies only with pump speed. CAPACITY IS PROPORTIONAL TO SPEED!!!

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

E X A M P L E S

Non Positive Displacement PUMPS


Operate on principle of imparting velocity on fluid then converting this fluid into a pressure TYPES
Centrifugal Propeller (not common) Jet Pumps

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Used to pump large volume of water Can be placed in multiple stages to increase discharge pressure Uses centrifugal force to accelerate fluid VOLUTE is increasing in area converts velocity to pressure Pumps have numerous uses onboard ships

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

PROPELLER PUMP
A propeller rotating in a narrow tube-like casing (sleeve) moves the fluid by pushing it through the tube. Pumping capacity is very large and pumping discharge pressure is very low.

JET PUMPS
Fluid is moved from one location to another by entraining it in another fluid moving at a high velocity (activating fluid). As the activating fluid leaves a nozzle, its velocity in increased and a low pressure area is formed. The fluid that is to be pumped flows into this low pressure area where it mixes with and is carried along with (entrained) the activating fluid.

JET PUMPS

Fans

FANS
Mechanical devices used to move large volumes of air. Centrifugal - used in ventilation systems Axial - used in boiler air feed systems and as compressors

FANS

QUESTIONS