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Welcome to

Training Program on ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1

Presented by P. S, Joshi

Agenda - session 1
This session will provide:
An introduction to Codes and Standards Objectives of Codes/ Standards. ASME Code System. Introduction To ASME Sec. VIII-1

Approximate duration 1.5 hours

WHY ADOPT CODES ?


Collective Knowledge
and Experience

2C CODE Credibility Safety 2S

(Plant, Personnel, People)

Standardization

Common pressure vessel codes


ASME Sec VIII Div 1 and Div 2 BS 5500 IS 2825 Ad Merk Blatter (German) AFNOR (French)

ASME Codes
Issued by : American society of mechanical Engineers, New York.

Issue freq. :

New edition every 3 years, on 1st July latest edition was on 1st July 04.
In-between revisions, issued yearly also on 1st July. 2004 Edn. & '04 add. --- 1st July '04 2005 Addenda --- 1st July '05 2006 Addenda --- 1st July '06 Again new edition - 2007 (1st July)

Addenda

Applicability

Edition & Addendas effective 6 months from date of issue (i.e. 1st Jan of next year)

ASME SEC. VIII DIV. 1

Pressure vessels within scope:


Ve s s e l s d e s i g n e d f o r p r e s s u r e s a b o v e 1 5 psig and not exceeding 3000 psi. Ve s s e l s h av i n g i n s i d e d i a m e t e r a b o v e 6 i n .

Unfired steam boilers, evaporators, Heat exchangers

A S M E S e c . V I I I d i v. 1 - - E x c l u d e d f r o m s c o p e
Ve s s e l s c o v e r e d b y o t h e r s e c t i o n s Pressure containers which p a r t o f r o t a t i n g m a c h i n e r y. Piping system & components beyond are integral

battery limits.
Ve s s e l s f o r h u m a n o c c u p a n c y

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes


ASME Codes give stipulations and guidelines for the design, materials, manufacture and testing of pressure vessels. These are issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
The codes were first issued in 1915. Since then, many changes have been made and new sections added to the code as need arose. It is a LIVE code and is revised and updated periodically. It keeps pace with time and is responsive to its users.

CODE SYSTEM

In its present from the ASME Code System is a follows


Section I
Section II

Power Boilers.
Material specifications.

Part A Part B Part C


Part D

Ferrous materials, Non Ferrous Materials Welding rods, electrodes, filler metals. Material properties.

CODE SYSTEM
Section III Section IV Section V Section VI Section VII Section VIII Nuclear Power Plant Components. Heating Boilers. Non destructive Examinations. Care and operation of Heating Boilers. Rules for care of Power Boilers. Division 1 - Pressure Vessels Division 2 Alternative Rules ( Pr. Vessel) Division 3 Rules for constructive of High Pressure Vessels. Welding and Brazing Qualifications.

Section IX

CODE SYSTEM, contd

Section X

Fiber glass reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels.

Section XI Rules for in service inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components.

APPLICABILITY
The editions and addenda become applicable after six months from date of issue. Thus, 1 st Jan. 2000, the construction of Pressure Vessels shall be as per 1998 edition and 1999 addenda. However, for old contracts spilling over b e y o n d 1 st J a n 2 0 0 0 , t h e o l d a p p l i c a b l e edition and addenda are valid.

CODE INTERPRETATION

ASME issue written replies know as "Interpretations" to the inquiries concerning technical aspects of the code .These are issued twice in a year (July and December) and are sent to "Edition - subscribers" as update service.

CODE CASES
Boiler and Pressure Vessels committee meets regularly to consider Proposed additions and revisions to the code. At the same time it may formulate code cases to clarify ' Intent' of existing requirements. These are published as code Case books. It is published along with new editions and supplements are automatically sent to subscribers of code case book till new edition ispublished.

ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 has five different parts


Part 1 : UG General requirements (Design requirements) Part 2 : Material Specific Requirements UCS Carbon steel & low alloy steel UHA High alloy steels UNF Non ferrous metallurgy

Part 3 : Fabrication method specific requirements UW Welded construction UF Forging construction


Part 4 : Mandatory Appendices & Part 5 : Non mandatory Appendices

Cylindrical Horizontal or Vertical Spherical

Steps in design -1
Find service conditions & metallurgy. Ensure ductility at service conditions Calculate thickness required (TR).

Steps in design -2
Design thickness = TR + Corr Allow Roundup to commercially available thickness to get nominal thickness Find MAWP from nominal thickness

Solve a problem
Calculate the minimum thickness of a cylindrical shell of inside diameter 4000mm, tan to tan length of 8300mm and a design pr. of 100 Kg/sq cmg.

Design temperature of the vessel is 343 C


Material of construction ASTM A 516 Gr 70 Allowable stress of vessel at 343 C = 16500 psi Corrosion allowance = 3.0 mm Efficiency of the weld joint 1.0

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UW 3 : WELD JOINTS CATEGORIES.

UW 3 : WELD JOINTS CATEGORIES.


Category A : 1 2 Longitudinal weld joints in main shell or nozzles. Any welded joints in spherical shell.

3. Any welded joints in Dished Head.

4. Circumferential Seam , Hemisph. head to shell.

UW 3 : WELD JOINTS CATEGORIES.


Category B : 1 2 Circumferential seam in main shell, or nozzle Circumferential seam connecting formed head (other than hemi-spherical head) to shell.

UW 3

: WELD JOINTS CATEGORIES .


Contd.

Category C : Weld joints connecting flanges, tube sheets, flat head to main shell or Nozzles (Flange Welds)

Category D: Welds joining communicating chamber or nozzle to the main shell / heads. (Attachment Welds).

Types of ends
FLAT HEADS : For low pressures up to 5 kg/sqcm FORMED HEADS : Torispherical
Generally used up to 15 kg/sqcm

Ellipsoidal
Generally used between 15 to 25 kg/sqcm

Hemispherical
Generally used above 25 kg/sqcm.

CONICAL HEADS : for Special purposes.

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FORMED HEADS
For spherical shells / head :
t = P x R / (2SE - 0.2P) .for Thickness P = 2SEt / (R + 0.2t).for MAWP

For Ellipsoidal Heads : ( 2 : 1 type)


t = P x D / (2SE - 0.2P) .for Thickness

P = 2SEt / (D + 0.2t) .for MAWP

For Torisph. Heads : (L = Crown Rad., r = 0.06 x L)


t, = 0.885 x P x L / (SE - 0.1P) for Thickness P = SEt / ( 0.885L + 0.1 t ) for MAWP

UW-11 :RT and UT EXAMINATIONS


Full Radiography is required in following cases : All butt welds of vessels for lethal substances If thickness exceeds given in table UCS -57, UHA - 33, Butt welds of unfired boilers, with design pr. > 50 psi.

For all other vessels, All cat. A welds full radiography . Cat. B & C welds which intersect the Cat. A welds shall be spot radiographed. Radiography is not required of category B and C butt welds in nozzles less than NPS 10 or 1 1/8 in. thick.

UW-11 :RT and UT EXAMINATIONScontd.


1 Spot Radiography : Spot RT of Butt joints if design efficiency is selected for spot radiography. No Radiography : No RT of weld joints if design efficiency is selected for no radiography or vessel is designed for external pressure

Ultrasonic examination : May be substituted for RT only for the final closure seam of a pressure vessel.

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UW 12

:WELDED JOINT TYPES

UW 12
RT 1 : RT 2 :

:WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY

Full Radiography ( E=1) : Full length radiography of all butt welds Full Radiography ( E=1): Cat A: Full length radiography Cat B: Spot RT per [UW 11 (a) 5 (b)] Spot radiography ( E= 0.85) No radiography ( E= 0.7)

RT 3 : RT 4 :

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Out of roundness of Shell


Difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameter measured at any cross section of the vessel shall not exceed 1% of the nominal diameter at that cross section under consideration. The diameter can be measured from either inside or outside. If measured from outside shall be corrected for the thickness at that cross section.

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NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT
Required area of Reinforcement = d X tr d= Diameter of finished opening tr = Required thickness of shell or head. Reinforcement is waived off for single openings if: 1. finished opening size is 3 1/2" or less diameter in shell or head of thickness 3/8" or less; or 2. finished opening size 2 3/8" or less diameter in shell or head of thickness over 3/8";

UCS-66 :
1

IMPACT TESTING

MDMT - Thickness point falls on or above the relevant curve. Impact test is not required (Curve UCS 66 )

2 Impact test is must, if MDMT < 120 deg F, and: Thickness Of welded part > 4 Thickness for Non-welded part > 6
3 Test normally required for MDMT < -55 deg. F

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IMPACT TESTING EXEMPTION -- UG-20 (f) :


Impact test exempt for if,
Materials are P No 1, Gr. No. 1 and 2 1. Materials of curve A : thickness < 0.5 inch

2. Materials curve B, C, D : thickness < 1.0 inch


3. Hydrostatic test performed as required 4. Design temp = -20 deg F to 650deg.F 5. No cyclic or thermal shock loading

IMPACT TESTINGEXEMPTION.contd.
1 UCS-68 (c) : If PWHT is performed when not a C o d e r e q u i r e m e n t , r e d u c t i o n o f 3 0 d e g . F ( 1 7 0C ) in impact testing exemption temp.(from Fig UCS66) may be given for P No. 1 materials
If coincident ratio is < 1, Reduction to exemption temperature may be given as per UCS-66.1

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UW-40 : POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT


PWHT is Code Requirement if thickness exceeds those given in tables for respective materials . Furnace PWHT method is preferred . Min. Overlap for PWHT in multiple heats = 5 ft. Local PWHT : Min Soak Band = weld width + Lesser of 2 or t. and it shall extend full 360 deg for circ. Joint PWHT temperature is higher of the two for dissimilar metal joints

UCS-56: POST -WELD HEAT TREATMENT

Max. Loading temp in furnace = 800 deg .F


Max. heating rate 400 deg F/hr/inch of thickness.

Soaking period as per UCS-56 tables.


Te m p d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h o t t e s t a n d c o l d e s t parts of vessel shall not exceed 150 deg .F Max. cooling rate = 500 deg .F /hr/inch of thk.

Max. offloading temp = 800 deg. F


Still air cooling permitted below 800 deg .F.

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Summary of NDT

NDE OF PRESSURE VESSELS


Selection of a particular NDT technique :

Applicable NDT methods / Welding Discontinuities

Discontinuities RT Porosity Slag Inclusion Incomplete fusion Incomplete Penetration Undercut Overlap * NA * NA T * * *

Applicable NDT Methods PT a NA NA NA * MT *b *b *b * * VT a NA NA NA * ET * * * * * *

Cracks
Laminations

a
a,c

b
b,c

a
a,c

NA

Applicable NDT methods for Weld joint types

NDT Methods

Joints

RT

UT

PT

MT

VT

ET

Butt

Corner

Lap

Note to NDT Table

a.
b. c. *

Surface
Surface and slightly subsurface Weld preparation or edge of base metal Applicable method Marginal applicability depending on other factors.

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UG-99

HYDROSTATIC TEST

H y d r o s t a t i c Te s t p r. = 1 . 3 X M A W P X s t r e s s r a t i o Stress ratio = Stress at test temp./Stress at design temp. M i n . I n s p e c t i o n p r e s s u r e = Te s t p r e s s u r e / 1 . 3 Any non-hazardous liquid may be used for the test. M i n . Te s t t e m p = M D M T + 3 0 d e g . F ( 1 7 C ) I n s p e c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e < = 1 2 0 d e g . F.

T h e M A W P m a y b e s a m e a s D e s i g n p r.
Te s t g a u g e r a n g e = 1 . 5 t o 4 t i m e s t e s t p r.

UG-100 :

PNEUMATIC TESTS

Pneumatic test is used instead of hydro when:

Ve s s e l s c a n n o t b e s a fe l y f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r

Ve s s e l s i n s e r v i c e i n w h i c h t ra c e s o f
testing liquid cannot be tolerated

Te s t p r = 1 . 1 X M A W P X s t r e s s r a t i o . Te s t t e m p s h a l l e x c e e d M D M T b y 3 0 d e g F. P r. G a u g e r a n g e = 1 . 5 t o 4 t i m e s t e s t p r e s s u r e

Safety precautions for Pneumatic Test

All welds around openings and attachment welds with throat >= 6mm ( 0.25) to be MT or PT tested

T h e p r. s h a l l b e f i r s t r a i s e d t o 5 0 % o f t h e t e s t p r.

Then the pressure shall be raised in steps of 1 0 % o f t e s t p r. To r e a c h f u l l t e s t p r e s s u r e

The pressure then shall be reduced to a value of test pressure /1.1 , to permit inspection.

CODE STAMPING
Each pressure vessel shall be marked with the following : 1) 2) The official Code U Symbol or the official UM Symbol. Name of the Manufacturer of the pressure vessel preceded by the words "certified by"; 3) 4) 5) 6) Max. allowable working pressure ---Minimum design metal temperature ---Manufacturer's serial number; Year built. psi at ---0F 0F .

----psi

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Thank You for your Time and Attention