Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Seminar Selected Topics in Communications Engineering May 21, 2013

Outline
Introduction

IMS Services
Architecture of IMS Protocols used in IMS Quality of service as key differentiator of IMS Interworking example: Voice Call Continuity

Service example: Conferencing


Summary
The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 1

Introduction to IMS

The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

Review of current mobile technologies


2G : GSM/EDGE Engineered with transport of voice in mind Data rates in the kbps range 3G : CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, WCDMA (UMTS) Split architecture for voice and data Data rates in the Mbps range 4G : HSPA+, LTE (LTE-Advanced), Mobile WiMAX Designed for IP transport Data rates in the Mbps and Gbps range
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 3

Review of current mobile technologies

Source: Ericsson Mobility Report (2012)

3G coverage is growing and expected to reach that of 2G


Voice traffic is steady, whereas data traffic increases

exponentially!
The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 4

Traffic and user behavior

Smartphone traffic
Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (March 2013)

Tablet traffic

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

Communications over packet networks


Main concerns Quality of Service (QoS) Availability Accounting
Can we offer some degree of quality over the Internet?

IMS enables a better identification of types of traffic.


Operators can adjust quality and tariffs accordingly.
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 6

The need for IMS


User benefits More alternatives of communication Quality as required per services More flexibility (access-independent)
Operator benefits Reduced CAPEX and OPEX

Increased revenue

Quick development of new services More customer loyalty, less churn


Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 7

IMS Requirements
IP Multimedia Sessions
Quality of Service (QoS) Interworking with the PSTN (Gateway) Roaming Service control

Rapid service creation


Multiple access
Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

IMS Services

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

What is possible with IMS?

Source: AT&T Developer Program

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

10

Traditional services over IMS


Voice Calls Same look and feel for the user. Totally different interworking underneath. Enhanced user experience

HD Codecs

Voice Mail Unified messaging Text-to-speech Short messages/Multimedia messages


Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 11

Novel services of IMS


Presence
Instant messaging Push-to-talk Video/picture/file sharing Multimedia conferencing
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 12

Architecture of IMS

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

13

Review of the GSM/UMTS architecture 3GPP


Release 99

Source: Smith, Collins [2004]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

14

Review of the GSM/UMTS architecture 3GPP


Release 4

Source: Smith, Collins [2004]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

15

Review of the GSM/UMTS architecture 3GPP


Release 5

Source: Smith, Collins [2004]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

16

Towards IMS: The mobile softswitch architecture

Source: Ericsson

Layered architecture Applies to voice and signaling


Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 17

Functions and interfaces of the IMS architecture

HSS and SLF CSCF (P,S,I) Application Servers (AS) BGCF SGW and MGW

HSS=Home Subscriber Server SGW/MGW=Signaling/Media Gateway S-CSCF=Serving I-CSCF=Interrogating BGCF=Breakout AS=Application Call/Session Gateway Call/Session Servers Control Control Ctlr. Function Function Func. P-CSCF=Proxy Call/Session Control Function SLF=Subscriber Location Function
Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

18

PCEF=Policy and PCRF=Policy and Charging Enforcement Functions and interfaces of the Charging Rules Function Function

IMS architecture

PCRF and PCEF Application Function


P-CSCF Application Server
Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

19

Interworking between networks with different address

Functions and interfaces of the IMS architecture type.

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

20

Interface to the PSTN and legacy mobile operators

Functions and interfaces of the IMS architecture

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

21

User identification in IMS


Public user identities Most typical (E-Mail-like) sip:firstname.lastname@operator.com
With telephone number

sip:+49-241-555-5555@operator.com;user=phone
Telephone URIs

URI}tel:+1-212-555-0293
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem Private user identity 22

User identification in IMS

3GPP Release 5

3GPP Release 6

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

23

Protocols used in IMS

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

24

Signaling protocol in IMS

Defines methods and responses

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

25

SIP Responses

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Examples:
100 Trying 180 Ringing 183 Session in Progress 200 OK 302 Moved Temporarily 407 Proxy Authentication Required 503 Service Unavailable 603 Decline
Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

26

IMS Services using SIP: Example of registration

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

27

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

IMS Services using SIP: Session establishment (1/3)

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

28

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

IMS Services using SIP: Session establishment (2/3)

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

29

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

IMS Services using SIP: Session establishment (3/3)

A glimpse on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

30

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Description of sessions with SDP


Appended to SIP messages (depends on method)
Contains information of the media to be exchanged

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

31

RTP/RTCP

Other Uses UDPprotocols as transport protocolin IMS


RTP includes sequence numbers, timestamps. RTP uses even port numbers. RTCP provides feedback about the quality of the session (packet

loss, delay, jitter). RTCP uses the next port number to that of RTP (odd). SRTP if encryption is required

H.248/Megaco
Used by controllers to control MGWs. Defines terminations and contexts. Physical terminations for ports, ephemeral terminations for RTP

streams.
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 32

Quality of Service for IMS

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

33

Review of QoS methods


QoS in the Internet RSVP (Resource ReSerVation Protocol)
Resources are reserved per session Offers two types of QoS: guaranteed and controlled load Requires the data to travel along the path over which the

reservation was made. Increased load for the routers

DiffServ (Differentiated services)


Treatment given to packets according to DSCP field Provides either expedite forwarding (top priority) or assured
Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem forwarding (several drop priorities) 34

Review of QoS methods


QoS in mobile networks
Different traffic classes per PDP context

Source: Holma, Toskala [2007]

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

35

Why do we need Admission Control? Complementary to quality of service Avoids oversubscription of links (preventive) When links are tightly loaded, just one more session will degrade all the others.

Admission control

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

36

Policy control for QoS in IMS


Decisions made by the PCRF according to information

from Application Function and Subscriber Profile Repository Policies enforced by the PCEF (i.e. GGSN)

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

37

Interworking example: Voice Call Continuity (VCC)

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

38

Smooth transitions of voice calls between IMS and regular

Voice Call calls Continuity (VCC) Circuit Switched


network

IMS calls can be "transferred" to or from a GSM/UMTS

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

39

Interworking with GSM Intelligent Network

Architecture for VCC CAMEL protocol used towards gsmSCF

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

40

VCC Example call scenario

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

41

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Service example: Conferencing

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

42

Working groups: SIPPING, XCON

Standardization of conferencing IMS is based on the SIPPING framework. Uses BFCP from XCON.
conferencing:

Makes use of the tightly-coupled model for

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

43

Architecture and control


SIPPING architecture for signaling (see left figure)
BFCP from XCON used for floor control (see right

figure)

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

44

Special URI for conference creation: factory URI

Conferencing sample call flows

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

45

Conferencing sample call flows

Source: Camarillo, Garca-Martn [2008]

Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

46

IMS is an architectural framework which enables

Summary providing multimedia services over IP networks.


increasing profitability by enabling more effective charging. IMS can be integrated to current UMTS and LTE networks. Actually, IMS is independent of the access method. The key differentiator compared to current Internet services is the enhanced quality of service. IMS creates another layer of abstraction with respect to user mobility. The protocolsIrving SIP and SDP are fundamental for the 47 Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem

IMS helps operators to reduce expenditures, while

References
The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS, Merging the

Internet and the Cellular Worlds, Gonzalo Camarillo and Miguel A. Garca-Martn, 3rd Ed, 2008 The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services, Miikka Poikselk and Georg Mayer, 3rd Ed, 2009 3G Wireless Networks, Clint Smith and Daniel Collins, 2004 Carrier Grade Voice Over IP, Daniel Collins, 2nd Ed, 2004 WCDMA for UMTS, Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, 4th ed, 2007 Irving Barra - The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem 48