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QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL

1) ORBITAL 2) QUANTUM NUMBER

Objectives:
1) Define the orbital 2) Describe all the 4 quantum numbers of an electron in an orbital: i. principal quantum number, n ii. Angular momentum quantum number, l iii. Magnetic quantum number, m iv. Electron spin quantum number, s

Atomic Orbital
Definition
An orbital is a threedimensional region in space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron.

QUANTUM NUMBER
Each of the electrons in an atom is described and characterised by a set of four quantum numbers, namely a) principal quantum number, n b) c) d) angular momentum quantum number, l magnetic quantum number, m electron spin quantum number, s.

Principle Quantum Number (n)


Indicates the energy level of a specific electron also known shell

The

principal quantum number may have only integral values: n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ,

2.2

n=1

n=2

n=3

Energy

increases

Orbital size

Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l


- Alternative name: Subsidiary / Azimuthal / Orbital Quantum Number

- The value of l indicates the shape of the atomic orbital (AO), the types of orbitals, and the angular momentum of the electron.
- The allowed values of l are 0, 1,2,,(n1)

Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l


Letters are assigned to different numerical values of l.
Numerical value of l
0
1 2 Symbol

Orbital shape spherical dumbbell cloverleaf

s
p d

Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l - l is dependant on n. (i.e., 0 l < n).


Value of n 1 Value of l 0 Subshells 1s

2
3 4

0,1
0,1,2 0,1,2,3

2s, 2p
3s,3p,3d 4s,4p,4d,4f

l = 0 (s orbital)

l = 1 (p orbital)

l = 2 (d orbitals)

l= 22(d l= (d orbitals) orbital)

2.2

Magnetic Quantum Number m


~is orientation of the orbital in space

for a given value of l m = -l, ., 0, . +l


if l = 1 (p orbital), m = -1, 0, or 1 if l = 2 (d orbital), m = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2

2.2

Exercise
No. of m Orbital degenerate notation (-l m +l) d orbitals 0 1 1s 2s 0 1 -1, 0, +1 3 2p 3s 3p 3d 0 -1, 0, +1
-2, -1, 0, +1, +2

l Shell n (l<n)

K L M

0 0 1 0 1 2

1 3 5

Electron Spin Quantum Number, s


The value of s determines the direction of spinning motions of an electron (either clockwise or counter clockwise) which is spinning on its own axes, as Earth does. The electron spin quantum number has a value of

1 + 2

1 or 2

Table 1: The four quantum numbers of electron.


Principle Quantum Number, Angular Momentum Subshell dsgntn Megnetic Quantum Number, l Electron spin quantum number, No. of orbitals in subshell Number of electron

n (shell)
1
2

(subshell)
0
0 1 0 1 2 0 1

1s
2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f

0
0 -1, 0, +1 0 -1, 0, +1 -2, -1, 0, +1, 2 0 -1, 0, +1

1
1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7

2
8

18

2 3

-2, -1, 0, +1, 2


-3, -2, -1, 0, +1, 2, 3

32

2n2