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An organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it.

Types of Research
1. Applied research or Exploratory It is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance, or policy needs. Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the Modern world. For example improve agricultural crop production treat or cure a specific disease improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation

Pure or basic research

It aims to solve questions (that is, problems) of a theoretical nature that have little direct impact on action, performance, or policy decisions. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge , not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. Example How did the universe begin What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?

Try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, and sometimes
In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied.
Example descriptive research (surveys, case studies, documentary analyses, developmental studies, correlational studies)


Explanatory Goes beyond description and attempts to explain the reasons for the phenomenon that the descriptive study only observed. The goal of all explanatory research is to answer the question of why. Explanatory research attempts to go above and beyond what exploratory and descriptive research to identify the actual reasons a phenomenon occurs.
Example descriptive research would be a study that finds that American couples are twice as likely to divorce as Indian couples. An explanatory researcher would then be interested in the reasons behind these facts.

Predictive Research If we can provide a plausible explanation for an event after it has occurred, it is desirable to be able to predict when and in what situations the event will occur.

For example if we know that teens in intercity schools, aged 13-16, are prone to high dropout rates, predictive research might assess (predict) a relationship between age or gender and not graduating from high school.

Good Research
Requirement of Good Research. 1. Purpose clearly defined The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and sharply delineated in terms as unambiguous as possible. 2. Research process detailed The research procedures used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research; to estimate the validity and reliability of the data

Good Research (Contd)

3. Research design thoroughly planned The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. 4. High ethical standards applied Reflect important moral concerns about the practice of responsible behavior in society

Good Research (Contd)

5. Limitations frankly revealed The researcher should report flaws in procedural design and estimate their effect on the findings. 6. Adequate analysis for decision makers needs Analysis of the data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate.

Good Research (Contd)

7. Findings presented unambiguously Presentation should be comprehensive, easily understood by the decision maker, and organized so that the decision maker can readily locate critical findings

Good Research (Contd)

8. Conclusions justified Conclusions should be confined to and justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis 9. Researchers experience reflected If possible, the research report should contain information about the qualification of this researcher