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Electromagnetic Compatibility

Dr.Ir. Agus Hartanto, M.Eng

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

Kompatibilitas elektromagnetik (EMC) adalah cabang ilmu yang mempelajari munculnya listrik tak sengaja, perambatan dan penerimaan energi elektromagnetik yang disebabkan efek yang tidak diinginkan (gangguan elektromagnetik, atau EMI). Tujuan EMC adalah operasi yang benar dari berbagai peralatan, dalam lingkungan elektromagnetik yang sama, untuk menghindari efek saling mengganggu.
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2 masalah dlm EMC


1.

2.

Radiasi yang terkait dengan munculnya gelombang elektromaknetik yang tidak diinginkan oleh beberapa sumber, dan langkah penanggulangan yang harus diambil untuk mengurangi dampak tersebut. Susceptibility (Kerentanan) atau immunity (kekebalan) dari peralatan listrik yang disebut sebagai korban terhadap gangguan elektromagnetik yang tidak direncanakan.
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PEMAKAIAN SPEKTRUM FREKUENSI


1kHz 10kHz 100 kHz 3 km 1MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz 1 GHz 3m 10 GHz 100 GHz 3 mm

1014 1015

Radio Gelombang tanah


Kabel 2 jalur
3 km

Radio Gel Angkasa


Kabel Coaxial
3m

Radio Garis pandang


Waveguide
3 mm 10 Cm 1 Cm

Laser beam

Serat Optik

Audio VLF LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF EHF
Satelit Microwave Relay

Ultraviolet Cahaya

Infrared

TV, FM Telepon, telegraph Radio CB, Radio amatir

Navigasi Kapal

Cellular, Pager, TV, PCS

Percobaan Wideband data


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Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) ?

EMI

EMI is a disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. The disturbance may interrupt, obstruct, or otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of the circuit. The source may be any object, artificial or natural, that carries rapidly changing electrical currents, such as an electrical circuit, the Sun or the Northern Lights
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Interference

Continuous Interference
Audio Frequency, from very low frequencies up to around 20 kHz. Frequencies up to 100 kHz (Mains hum from power supply units, nearby power supply wiring, transmission lines and substations) Radio Frequency Interference, RFI, from 20 kHz to a limit which constantly increases as technology pushes it higher (Wireless and Radio Frequency, Transmissions, Television and Radio Receivers, Industrial, scientific and medical equipment, High Frequency Circuit Signals (microcontroller activity)) Broadband noise may be spread across parts of either or both frequency ranges, with no particular frequency accentuated (Solar Activity Continuously operating spark gaps such as arc welders)

Pulse or transient interference


Sources of isolated EMP (electromagnetic Pulse) events include (Switching action of electrical circuitry, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), as a result of two charged objects coming into close proximity or even contact, Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse (LEMP), Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP), as a result of a nuclear explosion, Non-Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NNEMP) weapons, Power Line Surges/Pulses) Sources of repetitive EMP events, sometimes as regular pulse trains, include: Electric Motors, Gasoline engine ignition systems, Electric Fast Transient/Bursts (EFT)

Coupling Mechanisms
noise source, coupling path and victim, receptor or sink, natural phenomenon such as a lightning strike, electrostatic discharge (ESD) or, in one famous case, the Big Bang
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Natural

Man Made

electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling modes


conductive, capacitive, magnetic

or inductive, and

radiative

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Conducted Emission

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Radiated Emission

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EMI in 2.4 GHz

Phone: Many cordless telephones and baby monitors in the United States and Canada use the 2.4 GHz frequency, the same frequency at which Wi-Fi standards operate Bluetooth devices intended for use in short-range personal area networks operate from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz. Certain car manufacturers use the 2.4 GHz frequency for their car alarm internal movement sensors Microwave ovens operate by emitting a very high power signal in the 2.4 GHz band.
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Pemancar Radio atau Televisi Radar komersial maupun militer Satelit komunikasi Radio komunikasi (VHF, UHF, dll.) Radio navigasi (untuk pesawat terbang) dll.

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Basic Electromagnetic

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Rangkaian Sederhana

Hukum Ohm ; V = I X Z
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Magnetic Field

Magnetic fields arise from current flows. Their strength is measured in amperes per meter (A/m). Commonly, EMF investigators use a related measure, flux density (in microtesla (T) or millitesla (mT) instead. Magnetic fields exist as soon as a device is switched on and current flows. Field strength decreases with distance from the source. Magnetic fields are not attenuated by most materials. 17

Magnetic (H) Fields


Gmbr.2

H = I / ( 2 r ) Amp./meter r = Jari-jari (meter) = dibaca phi = 3,14 I = Arus listrik yang mengalir, dalam satuan Amper
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Magnetic (H) Fields


Gmbr.3

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Magnetic (H) Fields


Gmbr.4

I(t)

H (t)
V

Penomena ini disebut sebagai Coupling, dan ini merupakan mekanisme utama terjadinya Electromagnetic Interference
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Electric Field

Electric fields arise from voltage. Their strength is measured in Volts per metre (V/m) An electric field can be present even when a device is switched off. Field strength decreases with distance from the source. Most building materials shield electric fields to some extent.
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Electric (E) Field


+ + V _ + + + + + +

E
Z Ground Plane Gmbr.5 E = ( Voltage / Distance ) Volt/meter Misal V = 12 Volt D = 2cm= 0,02meter E = 12 / 0,02 V/m E = 600 V/m
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Radiation

Decreasing magnitude

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Contoh Emisi dari peralatan

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Contoh Emisi dari Kabel Power


HI

E
Return

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Emisi dari Proses Switching Pengoperasian switch kecil atau peralatan switching (misal, swtching power supply) akan mengakibatkan perubahan arus yg. tibatiba. Hal ini akan menimbulkan perubahan medan magnit, sehingga akan menginduksikan tegangan serta arus pada rangkaian disekitarnya.
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Contoh Emisi dari Proses Switching


S

Coil

Effect dari perubahan medan magnit pada coil, relay, motor dlsb.nya, akan terasa lebih kuat

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Emisi dari Pemancar (Transmitter)

Enerji e.m. yang dipancarkan dari radio komunikasi, radar pesawat terbang, kapal laut atau pemancarpemancar lainnya mempunyai level yg. tinggi sehingga akan mengganggu peralatan pesawat terbang lainnya, misalnya :
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Misalnya (cont)

Mengganggu sistim komunikasi lainnya. Menginduksikan tone /nada yg. tak diinginkan pada peralatan lainnya Mengkacaukan sistim kontrol peralatan lainnya.

Satellite dish

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Radiated Emission Test Set-up


3m

EUT

Cable Power 0,8m Turn table

1-4m To Test Receiver

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Radiated Emission Antenna

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Fasilitas Tes EMC


Open Area Test Site (OATS) Shielded Enclosure atau Shielded Room Semi-Anechoic Chamber

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Out Area Test Site (OATS)

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Radiated EmissionTest Set-Up

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Open Area Test Site (OATS)


KEUNTUNGAN
1. 2.

KERUGIAN
1.

Biaya murah Dapat menciptakan lingkungan (environment) tes yang ideal, tapi sulit tercapai.

2.

3.

Sulit untuk meng-kontrol Lingkungan electromaknet (electromagnetic environment). Sulit untuk mencari lokasi yang bebas dari polusi elektromaknit. Repeatable Test sulit tercapai

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Shielded Enclosure

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Shielded Enclosure
KEUNTUNGAN
1.

KERUGIAN
1.

2.

Menciptakan lingkungan (environment) elektromaknit yang terisolasi, sangat baik. Biayanya mahal.

Tidak dapat dipakai untuk melakukan pengukuran beberapa jenis tes EMC, karena adanya pantulan

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Semi-Anechoic Chamber

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Semi-Anechoic Chamber

Semi-Anehoic Chamber adalah Shielded Enclosures yang dilapisi dengan Radio Frequency (RF) Energy Absorber (peredam enerji frekwensi radio) sehingga efek pantulan berkurang. Semua sisi dilapisi dengan RF absorber kecuali lantai, yang berfungsi sebagai ground plane seperti pada OATS.

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Semi Anechoic Chamber


Keuntungan
Menciptakan Gelombang elektromaknit (GEM) yang terisolasi sangat baik 2. Tidak ada pantulan GEM 3. Repeatable measurement
1. 1.

Kerugian
Biaya mahal

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Semi-Anechoic Chamber

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Macam-macam RF Absorber
Polyurethane Absorber Ferrite Tiles

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Polyurethane Absorber

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Polyurethane Absorber didalam Semi-Anechoic Chamber


Menyerap Enerji Elektromaknit dengan cara mengubahnya menjadi Panas Dirancang dalam bentuk Pyramid sedemikian hingga Impedansi berubah dari 377 Ohm (free space) menjadi minimum ketika berada dibelakang Absorber Parameter Elektrik dari material berubah sebagai fungsi dari ketinggian Absorber.

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Ferrite Tiles didalam Semi-Anechoic Chamber

Ferrite Tiles adalah carbon yang dipadatkan dan dibentuk mirip tegel / teraso. Ferrite Tiles ini mampu meredam enerji EM yang sangat baik untuk frekwensi rendah hingga 1Ghz. Oleh karena bentuknya rata dengan ketebalan sekitar satu senti meter, maka sangat menghemat tempat, jika dibandingkan dengan Polyurethane yang membutuhkan ketebalan 1 meter atau lebih.
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Perbandingan Ferrite Tiles terhadap Polyurethane


Ferrite Tiles (Keuntungan) 1. Bekerja pada frekwensi rendah 2. Membutuhkan ruangan yang kecil untuk 3. Performance tidak berubah sepanjang masa Polyurethane (Kerugian) 1. Membutuhkan ruangan yang sangat besar 2. Ukuran menjadi besar untuk frekwensi rendah 3. Performance makin buruk dengan pertambahan umur
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Perbandingan Ferrite Tiles terhadap Polyurethane


Ferrite Tiles (Kerugian) 1. Sangat berat 2. Mudah pecah, terutama kalau jatuh 3. Bekerja makin buruk untuk frekwensi makin tinggi Polyurethane (Keuntungan) 1. Sangat ringan jika dibandingkan dengan Ferrite Tiles 2. Tidak mudah pecah 3. Bekerja makin baik untuk frekwensi tinggi

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Semi-Anechoic Chamber Harus lulus beberapa jenis test berikut

Shielding Effectiveness Test - Mil-Std 285 / NSA 65-6


Site Attenuation Test - FCC OST-55 / ANSI C63.4 Field Uniformity - IEC 1000-4-3 Absorber Test,
- NRL 8093 - MS-8-21 - Texas Instrument Specification #2693066

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Shielding Effectiveness

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Magnetic Field Attenuation Test

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Electric Field Attenuation Test

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Plane Wave Attenuation Test

2. d1 = 72 inch

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Site Attenuation Test

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Regulatory and standards bodies

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)


Technical Committee 77 (TC77), working on electromagnetic compatibility between equipment including networks. Comit International Spcial des Perturbations Radiolectriques (CISPR), or International Special Committee on Radio Interference. The Advisory Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility (ACEC) co-ordinates the IEC's work on EMC between these committees

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which publishes standards for the automotive industry
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National Organizations

Europe:
Comit Europen de Normalisation (CEN) or European Committee for Standardization). Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechniques (CENELEC) or European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

United States: The Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Britain: The British Standards Institution (BSI). Indonesia: Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN)
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Standard
Microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices, baby monitors and cordless telephones

Tahun 2003

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Medan Listrik dan Magnit pada tubuh manusia

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Health effect at different frequencies

low frequency (1 Hz and 10 MHz) current density (J, in A m-2) for preventing effects in excitable tissues such as nerve and muscle cells; and high frequency (100 kHz and 10 GHz), specific absorption rate (SAR, in W kg-1) for prevention of whole-body heat stress and local heating. intermediate frequency (100 kHz and 10 MHz) current density and SAR, very high frequency (10 and 300 GHz) incident power density (S, in W m-2) for excessive tissue heating near or at the body surface.
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WHO

Understanding the health impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) falls within the mandate of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the area of environmental health WHOs International EMF Project has provided a unique opportunity to bring together over sixty countries to identify criteria for EMF standards setting and to develop the Framework for Developing Health-based EMF Standards. The overall purpose of this Framework is to provide advice on how to develop science-based exposure limits that will protect the health of the public and workers from EMF exposure.
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Risk estimation
the definition of the biologically effective mechanism or characteristic of the field, which may vary with tissue or organ an exposure-effect relationship, and identification of a threshold, if any an exposure distribution and identification of sub populations with high exposure differences in susceptibilities within a population.

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Exposure limits using the hazard threshold and biological approaches

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Risk Assessment

For epidemiological studies, the strength of association between exposure and risk is important: is there a clearly associated risk with exposure? A strong association is one with a risk ratio (RR) of 5 or more. For tobacco smoking, many of the RRs were in excess of 10. However, the EMF studies of 50/60 Hz exposures, for example, suggest a RR of about 1.5 - 2 for childhood leukaemia How consistent are the studies of association between exposure to EMF fields and the risk of some health outcome? Do most studies show the same risk for the same disease? Using the example of smoking, essentially all epidemiological studies of smoking demonstrated an increased risk for lung cancer
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Dampak Medan Elektromagnetik

Weaver dkk di tahun 1999: medan listrik di perumahan dan ditempat kerja tidak memberikan dampak negatif Adair di tahun 1999 menyatakan bahwa tidak ada dampak biologis dari medan magnit yang kurang dari 100 mG, karena dirumah biasanya hanya sekitar 0,7 mG. World Health Organisation (WHO): medan elektromagnetik berpotensi menimbulkan kanker pada manusia (possibly carcinogenic to humans) United States National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS): medan elektromagnetik pada frekuensi rendah adalah possible carcinogens.
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Dampak Medan Elektromagnetik


mengubah pergerakan ion calcium didalam cel; mengurangi produksi melatonin, dapat mengubah berbagai hormon dan neurotransmitter. dapat merubah struktur genetik, rebonucleic acid (RNA). merubah aktivitas cel kekebalan melemahkan jantung 64

Exposure limits for ELECTRIC fields (50/60Hz)


1 V/m 10 V/m Aaronia "E1" recommendation Aaronia "E2" recommendation Recommended 1996 as maximum for "private individuals" by the NCRP, but not yet official Recommended 1996 as maximum for "workers" and their working environments by the NCRP, but not yet official. Influences Melatonin synthesis** Already viewed as "critical" by many scientists Maximum limit as recommended by ACGIH for persons with pacemakers or other electronic implants Though already probable as the future authoritative exposure limit. US state Montana already adopted this exposure limit. Might be authoritative in the EU soon Current limit in Germany and recommendation of IRPA/INIRC for "private individuals" Exposure limit for "workers" as suggested by IRPA/INIRC Exposure limit for "workers" as suggested by ACGIH Exposure limit for "workers" for a maximum of 2 hours, as suggested by IRPA/INIRC
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100 V/m

1.000 V/m

5.000 V/m 10.000 V/m 20.000 V/m 25.000 V/m

NCRP = National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists IRPA/INIRC = International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

Exposure limits for MAGNETIC fields (50/60 Hz)


10 nT 100 nT 1.000 nT Aaronia "M1" recommendation Aaronia "M2" recommendation Influences Melatonin synthesis** Already viewed as "critical" by many scientists Recommended as maximum for "private individuals" by the NCRP in 1996, but not yet official Considered as the future authoritative exposure limit. Might be authoritative for the complete EU soon Recommended as maximum for "workers" and their working environments by the NCRP in 1996, but not yet official Current exposure limit in Germany and IRPA/INIRC recommendation for "private individuals" (daily, constant exposure). Maximum limit as recommended by the ACGIH for persons with pacemakers or other electronic implants. IRPA/INIRC recommendation for "workers" (daily, constant exposure) IRPA/INIRC exposure limit for "private individuals" (daily exposure for few hours) IRPA/INIRC recommendation for "workers" (daily exposure for few hours)

10.000 nT

100.000 nT

500.000 nT 1.000.000 nT 5.000.000 nT

NCRP = National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists IRPA/INIRC = International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

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Kuat Medan Listrik dari Transmisi 3 phasa

IRPA
Privat Individual

ACGIH
Aaronoa E2 US state Montana EU Soon

Dokuments of the NRB , ELF Electromagnetic Fields and the risk of Cancer vol 12 no 67 1, 2001, National Radiological Protection Board Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ

Kuat Medan Magnit dari Saluran Transmisi 3 phasa 100 mT IRPA


Privat Individual

NCRP
workers EU Soon

Aaronia M2
Dokuments of the NRB , ELF Electromagnetic Fields and the risk of Cancer vol 12 no 68 1, 2001, National Radiological Protection Board Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ

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NCRP
workers

NCRP
Private individual

Aaronia M2

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Measurement of 50 Hz Magnetic Fields by ARPANSA

Aaronia M2

NCRP
Private individual

NCRP
workers

http://www.arpansa.gov.au/is_electricity.htm, 8 juli 2006

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Hasil pengukuran medan magnit dari beberapa peralatan listrik [mGauss (mT)]
Hartanto ARPANSA Inge dkk

Jarak

dekat
25 (2,5) 50 (5) 100 (10)

30 Cm
15 (0,15) 2,5 (0,25) 4,5 (0,45)

1m
2,2 (0,22) 1,5 (0,15) 1,8 (0,18)

30 Cm
10 (0,1) 25,3 (2,53)

0,5 Cm
25 500 (2,5 - 50) 50 20000 (5 - 2000) 150 -150000 (15 - 15000) -

30 Cm
0,4 -20 (0,04 - 2) 1 70 (0,1 - 7) 1 90 (0,1 - 9) 75

1m
0,1 2 (0,01-0,2) 0,1 3 (0,04-0,3) 0,4 3 (0,04-0,3) -

Televisi

Hairdryer

Elektric shaver Komputer Pompa Aquarium Pompa Air 300 W

6 (0,6)
113 (11,3) 100 (10)

3 (0,3)
15 (1,5) 10 (1)

1,6 (0,16)
1 (0,1) 1 (0,1)

2,3 (0,23)
-

NCRP < 1 mT

Aaronia M2 <0,1 mT Aaronia M1 <0,01 mT

PENGUKURAN MEDAN MAGNIT Monitor


Komputer 15
1m 1,6 8

10

Televisi 29
25 Cm

3m 1m 0.3

20

25 35

2.2
Satuan dalam mGauss Pengukuran dengan TRIFIELD 76

Alat ukur medan magnit: Tri-Field Meter

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Reduces Emissions & Susceptibility


Shielded Housings. Shielded Lines. Grounding Decoupled Cable Entries (Line filter, Signal filter) using RF chokes, or RC elements Keep Distance

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Dampak panas dari Handphone

Radiated power from Antenna= 125 mW Pada frekuensi 1900 MHz

SAR = Specific Absorbed Radiation [W/kg]


Standar FCC: 1,6 W/kg

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Pengaruh gangguan tidur karena medan elektromagnetik

Source: Environmental Management and Design ivision Lincoln UniversityNew Zealand

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Kondisi Eksisting

Banyaknya menara telekomunikasi yang didirikan. Tidak efisiennya pendirian tower: setiap penyelenggara komunikasi/penyiaran satu tower. Terdapat lebih dari 20.000 menara BTS tersebar diseluruh Indonesia Banyaknya menara telekomunikasi yang dalam pembangunannya tidak/kurang memperhatikan keamanan lingkungan dan estetika.
Source: Dirjen Postel
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Beam Shapes and Directions

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Pattern Antenna

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Pengukuran Kuat Pancaran

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Medan dekat & jauh


R2 = 2 d2/l
jika panjang antenna 2 m dan

R2
Medan dekat

Frekuensi 900 MHz maka R2 = 24 m

R1 Daerah Fresnel

R1 = 0,62 (d2/l)1/2
d = panjang antenna

Medan Jauh

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Data Standard 900 (1800) MHz


0,000.000.01 W/m
0,000.45 W/m 0,001 W/m 0,02 W/m Aaronia recommendation HF1-2003 BUND recommendation 1997 "Precautionary limit" in Austria Exposure limit in Russia ECOLOG-recommendation 1998 (Germany) Exposure limit in Poland

0,045 W/m
0,1 W/m 0,1 W/m 0,24 W/m 2 W/m 3 W/m 4,5 W/m (9 W/m)

Exposure limit in Italy


Exposure limit in CSSR Exposure limit in New Zealand Exposure limit in Canada (Safety Code 6, 1997) Exposure limit in Germany and ICNIRP recommendation 1998

30 W/m2 (6 W/m2)

FCC Occupational (General population)

Hasil Pengukuran : - 22 dBm atau 0,000.763 W/m =0,000.0763 mW/Cm


- 55 dBm atau 0,000.000.382 W/m= 0,000.000.38 mW/Cm
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Batas Radiasi Peralatan Telekomunikasi dan Penyiaran yg Diusulakn ke Dirjen Postel


Daerah Frekuensi (MHz) 0.1 < f < 3 3 < f < 3000 3000 < f < 300000 Kuat Medan Listrik (V/m) 60 20 40 Kuat Medan Magnit (A/m) 0,20 0,05 0,10 Kerapatan Daya (W/m2) 1 4

Batas Radiasi Peralatan Telekomunikasi dan Penyiaran Untuk Daerah Khusus yg Diusulakn ke Dirjen Postel
Daerah Frekuensi (MHz) Kuat Medan Listrik (V/m) 6 Kuat Medan Magnit (A/m) 0,016 Kerapatan Daya (W/m2) 0,10

0.1 MHz < f < 300 GHz

Hasil Pengukuran : 0,000.763 W/m Frekw=900 MHz

di Atap Gedung 20 LIPI Bdg


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0,000.000.382 W/m di dalam Gedung 20 LIPI Bdg

Alat Ukur

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