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Measurement with

Network Analyzer
Budi Prasetya, ST.,MT. Laboratoria Sistem Komunikasi ITTelkom Bandung

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Network Analyzer

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What Type of Device are Tested


High Duplexers Diplexers Filters Couplers Bridges Splitters, dividers Combiners Isolators Circulators Attenuators Adapters Opens, shorts, loads Delay lines Cables Transmission lines Waveguide Resonators Dielectrics R, L, C's RFICs MMICs T/R modules Transceivers

Receivers Tuners Converters


VCAs Amplifiers Antennas Switches Multiplexers Mixers Samplers Multipliers Diodes VCOs VTFs Oscillators Modulators VCAttens

Low

Integration

Transistors

Passive

Device type
3

Active

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Lightwave Analogy to RF Energy

Incident

Transmitted

Reflected

Lightwave

DUT
RF

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Why Do We Need to Test Components?


Verify specifications of building blocks for more complex RF systems Ensure distortionless transmission of communications signals linear: constant amplitude, linear phase / constant group delay nonlinear: harmonics, intermodulation, compression, AM-to-PM conversion Ensure good match when absorbing power (e.g., an antenna)

KPWR

FM 97

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Transmission Line Basics


+

Low frequencies wavelengths >> wire length current (I) travels down wires easily for efficient power transmission measured voltage and current not dependent on position along wire

High frequencies wavelength or << length of transmission medium need transmission lines for efficient power transmission matching to characteristic impedance (Zo) is very important for low reflection and maximum power transfer measured envelope voltage dependent on position along line

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Transmission line Zo

Zo determines relationship between voltage and current waves Zo is a function of physical dimensions and er Zo is usually a real impedance (e.g. 50 or 75 ohms)
1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2

attenuation is lowest at 77 ohms

normalized values

1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8

50 ohm standard

0.7
0.6 0.5 10

power handling capacity peaks at 30 ohms

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30

40

50

60 70 80 90 100

characteristic impedance for coaxial airlines (ohms)

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Power Transfer Efficiency


RS

RL

For complex impedances, maximum power transfer occurs when ZL = ZS* (conjugate match)
Rs +jX -jX RL

1.2

Load Power (normalized)

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

RL / RS

Maximum power is transferred when RL = RS

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Transmission Line Terminated with Zo


Zo = characteristic impedance of transmission line

Zs = Zo Zo

Vinc
Vrefl = 0 (all the incident power
is absorbed in the load)

For reflection, a transmission line terminated in Zo behaves like an infinitely long transmission line
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Transmission Line Terminated with Short, Open

Zs = Zo

Vinc
Vrefl
In-phase (0) for open, Out-of-phase (180) for short

For reflection, a transmission line terminated in a short or open reflects all power back to source
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Transmission Line Terminated with 25 W

Zs = Zo ZL = 25 W

Vinc
Vrefl
Standing wave pattern does not go to zero as with short or open
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High-Frequency Device Characterization

Incident

R
Reflected

Transmitted

A
REFLECTION
Reflected Incident = A R

TRANSMISSION
Transmitted Incident = B R

SWR S-Parameters S11, S22 Reflection Coefficient G, r

Return Loss Impedance, Admittance R+jX, G+jB

Gain / Loss S-Parameters S21, S12 Insertion Phase

Group Delay

Transmission Coefficient T,t

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Reflection Parameters
Reflection Coefficient

Vreflected = = Vincident

r
=

F
G

ZL - ZO Z L + ZO

Return loss = -20 log(r),

Emax Emin

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

VSWR =

Emax Emin

1+r 1-r

No reflection (ZL = Zo)

Full reflection (ZL = open, short)

r
RL
VSWR
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1 0 dB

dB
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Smith Chart Review


+jX

Polar plane

90

1.0 .8 .6

+R

.4

+ 180 o -

.2

-90 o
Constant X

-jX

Rectilinear impedance plane

Smith Chart maps rectilinear impedance plane onto polar plane

G= G= 1

Z L = Zo 0

Constant R

Z L = 0 (short)
180
O

G =1

ZL =

(open) 0
O

Smith chart
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Transmission Parameters
V Incident
DUT

V Transmitted

Transmission Coefficient =

V Transmitted V Incident V V
Trans Inc

Insertion Loss (dB) = - 20 Log

= - 20 log

V
Gain (dB) = 20 Log

Trans Inc

= 20 log

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Linear Versus Nonlinear Behavior


A * Sin 360o * f (t - to)
A

Linear behavior:

to Sin 360o * f * t A

Time

phase shift = to * 360o * f f 1 Frequency

input and output frequencies are the same (no additional frequencies created) output frequency only undergoes magnitude and phase change

Time

Input

DUT

Output

Nonlinear behavior:
f 1 Frequency

Time

output frequency may undergo frequency shift (e.g. with mixers) additional frequencies created (harmonics, intermodulation)

Frequency

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Criteria for Distortionless Transmission Linear Networks


Constant amplitude over bandwidth of interest Linear phase over bandwidth of interest

Magnitude

Frequency Phase Frequency

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Magnitude Variation with Frequency


F(t) = sin wt + 1/3 sin 3wt + 1/5 sin 5wt

Time

Time

Linear Network
Magnitude Frequency

Frequency

Frequency

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Phase Variation with Frequency


F(t) = sin wt + 1 /3 sin 3wt + 1 /5 sin 5wt

Linear Network
Time
Time

Magnitude

Frequency 0 Frequency -180 -360 Frequency

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Group Delay
Frequency

tg

Group delay ripple

Dw
Phase

to

Group Delay (t )g = -d dw

Frequency

-1
360
o

d df

in radians in radians/sec

group-delay ripple indicates phase distortion average delay indicates electrical length of DUT aperture of measurement is very important

in degrees

f in Hertz (w = 2 p f)
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Measuring S-Parameters
a1
Incident

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Transmitted
DUT

b2 Z0

Forward
S S

S b1

11

Reflected

Load

a2 = 0

11

= =

Reflected Incident Transmitted Incident

b1 = a 1 b = a
2 1

a2 = 0
a2 = 0

S
S

22

= =

21

Reflected Incident
Transmitted Incident

b2 = a 2 b = a b2
1 2

a1 = 0 a1 = 0

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a1 = 0 Z0
Load
DUT

S 22
Reflected Incident 21

Reverse
a2

b1

Transmitted

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Equating S-Parameters with Common Measurement Terms


S11 = forward reflection coefficient (input match) S22 = reverse reflection coefficient (output match) S21 = forward transmission coefficient (gain or loss) S12 = reverse transmission coefficient (isolation)

Remember, S-parameters are inherently complex, linear quantities -- however, we often express them in a log-magnitude format

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Criteria for Distortionless Transmission Nonlinear Networks

Saturation, crossover, intermodulation, and other nonlinear effects can cause signal distortion Effect on system depends on amount and type of distortion and system architecture
Time

Time

Frequency

Frequency

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Measuring Nonlinear Behavior


Most common measurements: using a network analyzer and power sweeps gain compression AM to PM conversion using a spectrum analyzer + source(s) harmonics, particularly second and third intermodulation products resulting from two or more RF carriers RL 0 dBm

ATTEN

10 dB

10 dB / DIV

8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

LPF

DUT

CENTER 20.00000 MHz RB 30 Hz VB 30 Hz

SPAN 10.00 kHz ST 20 sec

LPF

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What is the Difference Between Network and Spectrum Analyzers?


8563A
SPECTRUM ANALYZER GHz 9 kHz - 26.5

Amplitude Ratio

Amplitude

Measures known signal


Frequency

Measures unknown signals


Frequency

Network analyzers:

Spectrum analyzers:

measure components, devices, circuits, sub-assemblies contain source and receiver display ratioed amplitude and phase (frequency or power sweeps) offer advanced error correction

measure signal amplitude characteristics carrier level, sidebands, harmonics...) can demodulate (& measure) complex signals are receivers only (single channel) can be used for scalar component test (no phase) with tracking gen. or ext. source(s)

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Generalized Network Analyzer Block Diagram


Incident Transmitted

DUT
SOURCE

Reflected

SIGNAL SEPARATION
INCIDENT (R) REFLECTED (A) TRANSMITTED (B)

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

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Source

Supplies stimulus for system Swept frequency or power Traditionally NAs used separate source Most Network analyzers sold today have integrated, synthesized sources

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Incident

Transmitted

Signal Separation
( Test Set )
SOURCE
INCIDENT (R)

DUT
Reflected

SIGNAL SEPARATION
REFLECTED (A) TRANSMITTED (B)

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

measure incident signal for reference separate incident and reflected signals
splitter
bridge

directional coupler

Detector Test Port

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Detector Types
SOURCE

Incident

Transmitted

DUT
Reflected

SIGNAL SEPARATION

Diode

Scalar broadband (no phase information)


DC

INCIDENT (R)

REFLECTED (A)

TRANSMITTED (B)

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

RF

AC

Tuned Receiver
RF IF = F LO F RF
ADC / DSP

Vector (magnitude and phase)

IF Filter

LO

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Broadband Diode Detection

Easy to make broadband Inexpensive compared to tuned receiver Good for measuring frequency-translating devices Improve dynamic range by increasing power Medium sensitivity / dynamic range

10 MHz
30

26.5 GHz
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Narrowband Detection - Tuned Receiver


ADC / DSP

Best sensitivity / dynamic range Provides harmonic / spurious signal rejection Improve dynamic range by increasing power, decreasing IF bandwidth, or averaging Trade off noise floor and measurement speed

10 MHz
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26.5 GHz
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Comparison of Receiver Techniques


Broadband (diode) detection
0 dB

Narrowband (tunedreceiver) detection


0 dB

-50 dB

-50 dB

-100 dB
-60 dBm Sensitivity

-100 dB
< -100 dBm Sensitivity

higher noise floor false responses

high dynamic range harmonic immunity

Dynamic range = maximum receiver power - receiver noise floor


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T/R Versus S-Parameter Test Sets


Transmission/Reflection Test Set
Source Source

S-Parameter Test Set

Transfer switch

R A B A

R B

Port 1

Port 2

Port 1

Port 2

Fwd

DUT

Fwd

DUT

Rev

RF always comes out port 1 port 2 is always receiver response, one-port cal available

RF comes out port 1 or port 2 forward and reverse measurements two-port calibration possible

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Processor / Display
Incident Transmitted

DUT
Reflected SOURCE SIGNAL SEPARATION
INCIDENT (R) REFLECTED (A) TRANSMITTED (B)
PRm Cor CH1 CH2 S2 1 S1 2

50 MH-20GHz NETWORK ANYZER ACTIVE CHANNEL


lo g M A G lo g M A G 1 0 dB / 1 0 dB / REF 0 dB REF 0 dB 1 _ -1 .9 24 8 dB 1 _ -1 .2 46 8 dB 8 3 9.4 7 0 0 0 0 M H z D u ple xe r T e st - T x-A n t an d A n t-R x 1 1

ENTRY

RESPONSE

H ld PASS 1 8 8 0.4 3 5 0 0 0 M H z

STIMULUS

INSTRUMENT STATE

R CHANNEL

PRm Cor 2

H ld C H 1 S T A R T 7 7 5.0 0 0 0 0 0 M H z C H 2 S T A R T 7 7 5.0 0 0 0 0 0 M H z

PASS S T O P 9 25 .0 00 0 00 M H z S T O P 9 25 .0 00 0 00 M H z

T
HP-IB STATUS

R L

PORT 1

PORT 2

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY
CH1 CH2 PRm Cor 1 1 S21 S12 log MAG log MAG 10 dB/ 10 dB/ REF 0 dB REF 0 dB 1_ -1.9248 dB 1_ -1.2468 dB 839.470 000 MHz Duplexer Test - Tx-Ant and Ant-Rx

markers limit lines pass/fail indicators linear/log formats grid/polar/Smith charts

Hld PASS 1 880.435 000 MHz

PRm Cor 2

Hld CH1 START 775.000 000 MHz CH2 START 775.000 000 MHz

PASS STOP 925.000 000 MHz STOP 925.000 000 MHz

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Spectrum Analyzer / Tracking Generator


RF in

IF LO
DUT

8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

Spectrum analyzer
TG out

f = IF

DUT

Tracking generator

Key differences from network analyzer:


one channel -- no ratioed or phase measurements More expensive than scalar NA (but better dynamic range) Only error correction available is normalization (and possibly openshort averaging) Poorer accuracy Small incremental cost if SA is required for other measurements
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Frequency Sweep - Filter Test


CH1 S 21 log MAG 10 dB/ REF 0 dB CH1 S11 log MAG 5 dB/ REF 0 dB Cor

69.1 dB

Stopband rejection

START .300 000 MHz

STOP 400.000 000 MHz


CH1 S 21 Cor log MAG

CENTER 200.000 MHz


1 dB/ REF 0 dB

SPAN 50.000 MHz

Return loss

m1: 0.16 dB m2-ref: 2.145 234 GHz 0.00 dB


ref

1 4.000 000 GHz -

Insertion loss

Cor

x2 1 START 2 000.000 MHz

2 STOP 6 000.000 MHz

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Optimize Filter Measurements with Swept-List Mode


Segment 3: 29 ms (108 points, -10 dBm, 6000 Hz)
CH1 S 21 PRm log MAG 12 dB/ REF 0 dB

Linear sweep: 676 ms


(201 pts, 300 Hz, -10 dBm)

Swept-list sweep: 349 ms


(201 pts, variable BW's & power)

PASS

Segment 1: 87 ms (25 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)

Segment 5: 129 ms (38 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)

START 525.000 000 MHz

STOP 1 275.000 000 MHz

Segments 2,4: 52 ms (15 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)

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Power Sweeps - Compression

Output Power (dBm)

Saturated output power

Compression region

Linear region (slope = small-signal gain)

Input Power (dBm)


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Power Sweep - Gain Compression


CH1 S21 1og MAG 1 dB/ REF 32 dB 30.991 dB 12.3 dBm

1 dB compression:
1

input power resulting in 1 dB drop in gain

START -10 dBm

CW 902.7 MHz

STOP 15 dBm

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