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CELL DIVISION

Chromosome and Chromosomal Number


Chromosome is the threat-like structure that found in the nucleus of the cell

The number of chromosome in cell in each organisms are constant and referred as chromosomal number

CHROMATID

All the chromosome in the nucleus of somatic cell exist in pairs and call as diploid number of chromosome (2n)

In humans, one set of chromosome consists of 23 pairs of chromosome. That means our somatic cell have 46 chromosome.

From 23 pairs of chromosome, one pairs is the sex chromosome.


Two X chromosome (XX), referred to female, while XY chromosome referred to males

The two chromosome in each pair have same structure and called as homologous chromosome

Cell which contain homologous chromosome called as diploid cells, while cell contain only one set of chromosome called as haploid cells
Example of haploid cell is the gametes cells

THE HUMAN CHROMOSOMES

WHY CELL DIVISIONS IMPORTANT


To maintain chromosomal number of each organisms

To replaced the dead or damaged cell with new cells. Increase the number of cell in the body for growing

THE CELL CYCLE


Interphase M phase Cytokinesis. (Cytoplasmic division)

Mitotic Cell Division (M Phase)

Mitosis and Meiosis (The nucleus division)

Interphase is also the stage at which cells grow larger and prepare for cell division

During interphase, the nucleus is big and well difined.


Interphase is divided into three shorter stages or sub-phases: (a) G1 phase (growth phase 1)

(b) S phase ( DNA synthesis)


(c) G2 phase (growth phase 2)

Interphase
G1 (growth phase 1)

Events
Proteins and organelles are being

synthesized The metabolic rate of the cell is high Chromosome are extremely fine and known as chromatin
Synthesis of DNA occurs
The DNA undergo replication The cell continues to grow and remain

S Phase (DNA Synthesis)


G2 (growth phase 2)

metabolically active The cell accumulates energy and completes its final preparation for division

MITOSIS
Mitosis is process division of nucleus in the somatic cell. The number chromosome are same like the parents cell

Mitosis can be subdivided into four phases, namely :


(a) Prophase (b) Metaphase (c) Anaphase (d) Telophase

PROPHASE
Nuclear membrane begins to disappear. Chromatin threads coil up to form chromosomes

Centrioles move to the opposite poles as spindle


fibers form between them.

METAPHASE
Nuclear membrane disappears.
Spindle fibers surround the chromosomes

Chromosomes move towards the equator and


become attached to the spindle microtubules by their centromers

ANAPHASE
Centromeres split. The two chromatids from each chromosomes

move to the opposite poles at the spindles contract.

Spindle fibers dissapear A new plasma membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes Inside each daughter nucleus, the chromosomes uncoil and form chromatin.

TELOPHASE

Formation of cleavage or cell plate for cytokinesis


begins

CYTOKINESIS
The division of cytoplasm of a cell to form new
cells after the dauhgter nuclei have been formed In animal cells, cytokinesis take place with the formation of cleavage furrow In plant cells, cytokinesis take place with the formation of cell plate

THE FUNCTION OF MITOSIS


To produce new cells for growth To replace millions of cells which die or are worn out To develop zygotes in sexual reproduction

REGENERATION
Lizard drop a tail to entice a predator

Healing of wounds
Some plants capable of total regeneration

(the formation of a whole new plant from a leaf, stem or root)

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTROLLED MITOSIS

For the normal cell growth

For maintain the number of cell in body

For the normal development

THE EFFECTS OF UNCONTROLLED MITOSIS

Cancer

Tumor

Cancerous cell divide freely and Form by cancerous cell uncontrollably. that is divided Cancer can be caused by: uncontrollably - damage to the DNA - mistakes that occur in the genes that controlled cell division. - the effect of radiation - carcinogen compounds.

UNCONTROLLED MITOSIS
Will produce cancer cells
NORMAL CELLS

CANCER CELLS

- Divide freely and uncontrollably without heeding the cell cycle control system

CAUSES OF CANCER
Damage to the DNA Mistakes that occur in the genes that control cell division 3. The effects of ionising radiation such as Xrays, UV-rays 4. Certain chemical compounds like tar in tobacco 5. Carcinogenic compounds such as formaldehyde.
1. 2.

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NORMAL CELLS AND CANCEROUS CELLS


Normal cells undergo controlled growth but cancerous cells undergo uncontrolled growth. 2. Normal cells have a single organised layer but cancerous cells have multi-layered and disorganised cells 3. Cells are differentiated and carry out specialised functions in normal cells but in cancerous cells they undifferentiated and do not have specialised functions. 4. The nuclei and chromosome number of normal cell are normal but the nuclei and chromosome number of cancerous cells are abnormal.
1.

Test Your IQ
1. Give the definition of mitosis 2. State two reasons why mitotic cell division is important in living organisms. 3. Name the stages in M phase 4. State the important events that occur at (i) G1 phase (ii) S phase (iii) G2 phase

THE APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE ON MITOSIS IN CLONING

Cloning

Tissue culture technique

ANIMAL CLONING

CLONING
Cloning is the process of producing clones of a cell, tissue or organism, through asexual reproduction

Animals cloning involves the transfer of the nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum or embryonic cell which has the nucleus removed

Many animals have been succesfully cloned ever since the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly

HUMAN CLONING
WHAT IS YOUR OPINION?

DISCUSSION :

- MAKE A GROUP OF 3. - DISCUSS AT LEAST 3 ADVANTAGES AND 3 DISADVANTAGES OF HUMAN CLONING BASE ON YOUR OPINION.

Cloning.

THE ADVANTAGES OF CLONING


Overcoming infertility problem 2. Choosing desirable characteristics 3. Curing diseases. cloned organs colud be used to replace diseased or damaged organs without being rejected by the patients immune system
1.

advantages
Cloning offers the opportunity to rapidly

improve the genetic makeup of a herd through reproduction of elite animals As cloning techniques become more efficient, more clones are living to adult age and so their reproduction function can be studied. It appears that there is no difference in the health of cloned animals compared with non-cloned animals. Cloning allows the reproduction of animals that have been genetically modified (eg for the production of medicines in milk).

WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF CLONING?


Losing genetic diversity 2. Wiping out entire population. at risk from new pathogens / diseases 3. Inbreeding because everyone has the same genetic materials, causes more diseases, abnormalities eventually death to the population.
1.

Bermulanya perkembangan manusia (1) [Mitosis]


Dia menciptakan kamu dari diri yang satu (Adam),

kemudian Dia menjadikan daripadanya, isterinya (Hawa) dan Dia mengadakan untuk kamu binatangbinatang ternak lapan ekor: (Empat) pasangan (jantan dan betina). Dia menciptakan kamu dalam kandungan ibu kamu (berperingkat-peringkat) dari satu kejadian ke satu kejadian). Dalam tiga suasana yang gelap-gelita. Yang demikian (kekuasaanNya) ialah Allah Tuhan kamu; bagiNyalah kekuasaan yang mutlak; tiada Tuhan melainkan Dia; oleh itu bagaimana kamu dapat dipesongkan (dari mematuhi perintahNya)? [Az zumar: 6)

TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUE


Tissue culture technique involves the growth of cell or tissues outside the cell in a suitable culture medium which contain nutrient and growth hormone or through in-vitro methods. New individuals that are produced, are generally identical to the existing organisms The cultures medium are incubated at an optimal temperature of 370C and at optimal pH

Advantages of Cloning
1) Many clones are produced in a short time 2)The good qualities of the plants and animals can

be selected and maintained in the clones.


3) It increase the quality of products.

4) It ensures the continuity of hereditary traits


from the parent to the clones. 5) It can be carried out any time of the year.

Disadvantages of Clones
1) Cloning prevents natural selection.
2) Cloning is carried out under controlled environment

If the external environment changes, then the


clones will be destroyed. 3) The resistance of the clones towards diseases and pest is the same. So if one is infected, the others will be affected to and die.

MEIOSIS
Meiosis is process division of nucleus in the Reproductive organ. This process will reduce the number of chromosome in daughter cell to half that of the parent Each gametes receive only one chromosome from every pair of homologous chromosomes. That means in human gametes, contain 23 haploid chromosome

During the fertilization, sperm and egg will meet, restore the complete number of chromosome and genetic material, forming a diploid zygote with 46 chromosome

In multicellular organisms, meiosis occurs in the testes ( in males) and ovaries (in female)

In plants, it occurs in anthers (males) and ovaries (female)

Meiosis

Meiosis I
-Prophase I -Metaphase I -Anaphase I -Telophase I

Meiosis II
-Prophase II -Metaphase II -Anaphase II -Telophase II

Interphase
The cell replicates its DNA and duplicates its chromosome The cell now has twice the amount of genetic material, but the same number of chromosome as before The nucleus membrane and nucleolus are still present

In animal cells a pair of centrosomes is also formed in the cytoplasm

Meiosis 1
Prophase 1 Metaphase 1 Anaphase 1 Telophase 1

Prophase 1
Centrioles move to the opposite poles

Chromosome thicken and each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. Homologous chromosomes pair together in the process called synapsis
Each paired homologous chromosomes is called a bivalent, consists 4 chromatids

The chromatids of homologous chromosome, cross over along their length and at this point it called as chiasmata.
At this point, there is a change in genetic material between the non-sister chromatids. This process will form new combination of genetic material and this important for genetic variation The nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate and the spindle fibres are formed

Bivalent

Chiasmata

Metaphase 1
Paired homologous chromosome line up at the metaphase plate. One chromosome of each pair faces each pole of the cell The chromatids of each chromosome are attached to the spindle fibres at their centromer

Anaphase 1
The pair of homologous chromosome separate from one another and move to the opposite poles Each chromosome moves with its centromere heading towards the pole and the two sister chromatids trailing behind

Telophase 1
The chromosome arrive at the poles. Each pole now has a haploid daugther nucleus because it contain only one set of chromosome The spindle fibre disappear The nucleus membrane reappears to surround each group of chromosome

The nucleolus then reappears in each nucleus

Cytokinesis occurs. The cleavage form and two haploid daughter cells form Between meiosis I and meiosis II, there is little or no interphase and no replication of chromosome

Meiosis II
Prophase II Anaphase II

Metaphase II

Telophase II

Prophase II
The nuclear membrane and nucleoli disappear Spindle fibres form again Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached together by centromere

Metaphase II Chromosome line up at the metaphase plate Each sister chromatid is attached to the spindle fibre at the centromere

Anaphase II
The centromers holding the sister chromatids together split Chromatids separate Spindle fibre pull each chromatids to opposite poles

Telophase II
Finally the nucleoli and nuclear membrane re-form. The spindle fibres break down Cytokinesis follows and four haploid daughter cell are formed. Each haploid cell contains half the number of chromosome. The haploid cell become gametes

Meiosis I Similarities

Meiosis II

Both process consist 4 stage. Both process involve nucleus and cytoplasm division

Meiosis I
Synapsis occur

Differences

Meiosis II
No synapsis
No crossing over

Crossing over occur In metaphase I, paired homologous chromosome line up at the metaphase plate In telophase I, two haploid chromosome are formed

In metaphase II, chromosome line up at the metaphase plate

In telophase II, four haploid chromosome are formed

Mitosis Similarities

Meiosis

The process of cell division in which DNA replicates only once

Mitosis
All somatic cell
Replace damage and dead cell Synapsis not occur

Differences
Place occurs
Purpose

Meiosis
Reproductive organ
Produce gametes

Synapsis

Synapsis occur Crossing over occur

Crossing over not occur

Crossing over

Mitosis
Produce cell for growth and repair Not cause genetic variation One

Differences
Role
Genetic variation

Meiosis
Produces gamete
Cause genetic variation Two

Number of division
Number of daughter cell

Two daughter cell

Four daughter cell

Mitosis
Same as the parent cell

Differences
Genetic content

Meiosis
Different from the parent cell

Diploid

Chromosomal number of daughter cell

Haploid

THE IMPORTANCE OF MEIOTIC CELL DIVISION

Provides genetic variation

Leads to genetic recombination

Ensure the maintenance of diploid number of chromosome

Appreciating the Movement of Chromosome during Mitosis and Meiosis The meiosis and mitosis ensure the survival of each species from one generation to the next. Asexual reproduction through mitosis process produces offspring that are identical to single parent Sexual reproduction through meiosis process produces genetic variation in the offspring

If meiosis does not occur properly, the gamete formed will have an abnormal number of chromosome

This will result the abnormal zygote. For example, Down Syndrome is the result of an extra Chromosome 21, and cause 47 number of chromosome

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