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# Aircraft Performance

Module 4

## Where are we?

1 : Introduction to aircraft performance, atmosphere 2 : Aerodynamics, air data measurements 3 : Weights / CG, engine performance, level flight 4 : Turning flight, flight envelope 5 : Climb and descent performance 6 : Cruise and endurance 7 : Payload-range, cost index 8 : Take-off performance 9 : Take-off performance 10 : Enroute and landing performance 11 : Wet and contaminated runways 12 : Impact of performance requirements on aircraft design

## Turning flight and flight envelope

Introduction/Objectives
Understand performance in turning flight
Lift required in a turn Turning radius and rate of turn Drag increment in a turn Operational considerations

## Understand limits associated with flight envelope

Stall speed and stall warning Buffet boundary Ceiling / Maximum certified altitude Maximum operating speed and max. speed with flaps extended

## Turning flight and flight envelope

Turning Performance
Summation of vertical forces during the turn yields the relationship between load factor n and bank angle

(W/g)V2/RT

## Turning Performance (Contd)

Summation of horizontal forces during the turn yields the relationship between bank angle and turning radius RT

Fh = 0
L sin = (W/g)V2/RT Knowing that NZ = L/W = 1/cos we can determine RT RT = V2/(g tan ) or RT = V2/[g(NZ2-1)0.5] Rate of turn is d/dt = V/ RT d/dt = [g(NZ 2-1)0.5]/V
Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Turning Performance (Contd)

Drag is increased in a turn
In level flight : In turning flight : Drag increment : CD = CDo + KCL2 CD = CDo + K NZ2CL2 CD turn = KCL2 (NZ2 1)

Operational considerations
Good turning performance may be required at some airports in order to avoid obstacles

## In order to maintain level flight during a turn, thrust must be increased

Stall margin is reduced during a turn Minimum drag speed is increased during a turn

Minimum speeds used for flight must take into account the effect of a turn

## Turning flight and flight envelope

Flight Envelope
The flight envelope defines altitude and airspeeds at which the aircraft can be operated

## Many factors are used to define the flight envelope

Stall speed Stall warning Buffet boundary

Ceiling
Maximum certified altitude Maximum cruise speed VMO / MMO

VMD

## Basic considerations Regulations

Test data
Load factor CG effects Stall speed chart

## Defines the lower limit of the flight envelope at low altitude

Used as a reference to establish safe operating speeds Determination of stall speed and stall characteristics is an important part of an aircraft certification program Impact on performance guarantees Stall speeds and stall characteristics are not easily predictable A Stall Protection System (SPS) may be required if stall characteristics do

not meet all certification requirements. Two types of stick pushers are typically used: Pre-aerodynamic stall Post-aerodynamic stall
Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Considerations (Contd)

A pre-stall pusher is used when the basic aerodynamic stall characteristics are not certifiable
Typically used when leading edge stall occurs (no slats) For example, pitch-up or excessive roll at aerodynamic stall The pre-stall pusher prevents the aircraft from reaching the maximum corresponding to aerodynamic stall During an approach to a stall, increases and the SPS will activate the stick pusher when reaches the pusher firing angle defined in the SPS and corresponding to the flight condition (e.g. Mach or altitude) and aircraft configuration (e.g. flap setting) A suitable margin must be present between at pusher activation and at aerodynamic stall to cater for (1) effect of dynamic stall entries and (2) adverse effects of potential wing leading edge contamination Current regulations require that the reference stall speed (VSR) be defined as follows for aircraft with pre-stall pusher:
VSR = 1.02 Vs1g Where Vs1g is the speed at pusher activation

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Considerations (Contd)

A post-stall pusher is normally used when the basic aerodynamic stall characteristics are acceptable but when other characteristics are uncertifiable
Possibility of deep stall Identification of the stall is deficient

Current regulations require that the reference stall speed be defined as follows for aircraft with post-stall pusher:
VSR is the greater of Vs1g ( Vs1g is the 1 g aerodynamic stall speed) Or 1.02 Vpush (Vpush is the speed at pusher activation)

Special considerations for calculation of stall speed ratios (e.g. 1.15 VSR):
Ratios are calculated using calibrated airspeed values VSR is based on a load factor of 1 g Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Regulations

25.103 Stall speed.
(a) The reference stall speed, VSR, is a calibrated airspeed defined by the applicant. VSR may not be less than a 1-g stall speed. VSR is expressed as:

where: VCLMAX = Calibrated airspeed obtained when the load factorcorrected lift coefficient is first a maximum during the maneuver prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section. In addition, when the maneuver is limited by a device that abruptly pushes the nose down at a selected angle of attack (e.g., a stick pusher), VCLMAX may not be less than the speed existing at the instant the device operates;

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Regulations (Contd)

(b) VCLMAX is determined with:
(1) Engines idling, or, if that resultant thrust causes an appreciable decrease in stall speed, not more than zero thrust at the stall speed; (5) The center of gravity position that results in the highest value of reference stall speed; and (6) The airplane trimmed for straight flight at a speed selected by the applicant, but not less than 1.13VSR and not greater than 1.3VSR. (c) Starting from the stabilized trim condition, apply the longitudinal control to decelerate the airplane so that the speed reduction does not exceed one knot per second. (d) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, when a device that abruptly pushes the nose down at a selected angle of attack (e.g., a stick pusher) is installed, the reference stall speed, VSR, may not be less than 2 knots or 2 percent, whichever is greater, above the speed at which the device operates.

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Regulations (Contd)

25.201 Stall demonstration.
(d) The airplane is considered stalled when the behavior of the airplane gives the pilot a clear and distinctive indication of an acceptable nature that the airplane is stalled. Acceptable indications of a stall, occurring either individually or in combination, are (1) A nose-down pitch that cannot be readily arrested; (2) Buffeting, of a magnitude and severity that is a strong and effective deterrent to further speed reduction; or (3) The pitch control reaches the aft stop and no further increase in pitch attitude occurs when the control is held full aft for a short time before recovery is initiated.

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Regulations (Contd)

25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must be possible to produce and to correct roll and yaw by unreversed use of the aileron and rudder controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The longitudinal control force must be positive up to and throughout the stall. In addition, it must be possible to promptly prevent stalling and to recover from a stall by normal use of the controls. (b) For level wing stalls, the roll occurring between the stall and the completion of the recovery may not exceed approximately 20 degrees. (c) For turning flight stalls, the action of the airplane after the stall may not be so violent or extreme as to make it difficult, with normal piloting skill, to effect a prompt recovery and to regain control of the airplane. The maximum bank angle that occurs during the recovery may not exceed -(1) Approximately 60 degrees in the original direction of the turn, or 30 degrees in the opposite direction, for deceleration rates up to 1 knot per second; and (2) Approximately 90 degrees in the original direction of the turn, or 60 degrees in the opposite direction, for deceleration rates in excess of 1 knot per second. 15 Turning flight and flight envelope

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed Load Factor

In order to determine CLMAX from test data, the normal flight path load factor NZ must be determined
NZ is determined from body axis accelerometers and angle-of-attack using the following equation NZ = (NZB - NZO) cos + (NXB - NXO) sin
Where: NZB = Normal acceleration in aircraft body axis (g) NZO = Normal acceleration offset (g) NXB = Longitudinal acceleration in aircraft body axis (g) NXO = Longitudinal acceleration offset (g)

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed CG effect

CLMAX test data is typically obtained with a CG within a small tolerance of the forward CG limit (tolerance allowed for flight test purposes) CLMAX test data can be corrected for the exact forward CG limit using the following equation that assumes constant CLFWD = CLTEST [ 1 + (MAC/LT)*(CGFWD CGTEST)]
Where: CLFWD = CL corrected for the forward CG limit

## CLTEST = CL derived from test

MAC = mean aerodynamic chord (ft)

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## Flight Envelope Stall Speed CG effect (Contd)

LT = effective tail arm, distance from 25% MAC of the wing to 25 % MAC of the tail (ft) CGFWD = CG position at forward limit (fraction of MAC) CGTEST = test CG position (fraction of MAC)

The equation presented on the previous slide can also be used for other applications where CL is defined at constant for a given CG position
CL - curve CL at buffet onset

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## Flight Envelope Stall Warning

Stall warning is an important feature that alerts the pilot when he reaches an excessive condition that may lead to a stall
Aural warning Buffeting or artificial stall warning provided by a stick shaker

at stall warning must not be deliberately exceeded by the pilot Most aircraft do not have adequate natural buffeting
Stall warning is provided by a stick shaker for stick shaker actuation is programmed in the SPS

Normal all-engine operating speeds must provide a minimum margin of 40 degree bank (1.305 g) prior to stall warning Regulations related to stall warning are presented on the next slides
Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Stall Warning Regulations

25.207 Stall warning.
(a) Stall warning with sufficient margin to prevent inadvertent stalling with the flaps and landing gear in any normal position must be clear and distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected conditions of flight. However, a visual stall warning device that requires the attention of the crew within the cockpit is not acceptable by itself. If a warning device is used, it must provide a warning in each of the airplane configurations prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section at the speed prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. (c) When the speed is reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second, stall warning must begin, in each normal configuration, at a speed, VSW, exceeding the speed at which the stall is identified in accordance with 25.201(d) by not less than five knots or five percent CAS, whichever is greater. Once initiated, stall warning must continue until the angle of attack is reduced to approximately that at which stall warning began. Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Stall Warning Regulations

(d) In addition to the requirement of paragraph (c) of this section, when the speed is reduced at rates not exceeding one knot per second, in straight flight with engines idling and at the center-of-gravity position specified in 25.103(b)(5), VSW, in each normal configuration, must exceed VSR by not less than three knots or three percent CAS, whichever is greater.
(e) The stall warning margin must be sufficient to allow the pilot to prevent stalling (as defined in 25.201(d)) when recovery is initiated not less than one second after the onset of stall warning in slow-down turns with at least 1.5g load factor normal to the flight path and airspeed deceleration rates of at least 2 knots per second, with the flaps and landing gear in any normal position, with the airplane trimmed for straight flight at a speed of 1.3 VSR, and with the power or thrust necessary to maintain level flight at 1.3 VSR. (f) Stall warning must also be provided in each abnormal configuration of the high lift devices that is likely to be used in flight following system failures (including all configurations covered by Airplane Flight Manual procedures).

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## Flight Envelope Buffet Boundary

Basic considerations Regulations Test data Data expansion AFM data

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## Flight Envelope Buffet Boundary

Buffeting is normally caused by separation of airflow over the wing surface Separation of airflow results from shockwaves (compressibility effects)

Buffeting can occur at relatively low speed but relatively high - referred to as low speed buffet
Buffeting can also occur at high speed but relatively low referred to as high speed buffet

## Buffet onset is defined by flight test

Windup turns at constant Mach are conducted Defined as the speed at which the vibration reaches +/- 0.05g Lift coefficient at buffet onset is determined as a function of M

Operationally, a maneuvering margin of at least 0.3 g is desired prior to buffet onset during all phases of flight
Not a requirement except for JAA Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Buffet Boundary Regulations

25.251 Vibration and buffeting.
(a) The airplane must be demonstrated in flight to be free from any vibration and buffeting that would prevent continued safe flight in any likely operating condition.

(b) Each part of the airplane must be demonstrated in flight to be free from excessive vibration under any appropriate speed and power conditions up to VDF/MDF. The maximum speeds shown must be used in establishing the operating limitations of the airplane in accordance with 25.1505. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, there may be no buffeting condition, in normal flight, including configuration changes during cruise, severe enough to interfere with the control of the airplane, to cause excessive fatigue to the crew, or to cause structural damage. Stall warning buffeting within these limits is allowable.
(d) There may be no perceptible buffeting condition in the cruise configuration in straight flight at any speed up to VMO/MMO, except that stall warning buffeting is allowable. Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Buffet Boundary Data Expansion

The CLBUFFET versus M relationship obtained from buffet onset testing can be transformed into a more useful format
Normalized load factor ( W NZ / ) versus M ( W NZ / ) = 1481.3 CL M2 S

The graph showing W NZ / versus M is shown on the next page and provides a convenient way to determine margin to low speed and high speed buffet onset knowing load factor, weight and altitude
Coffin corner refers to the flight condition at the top of the normalized load factor versus M graph a condition where no speed margin is available to low speed and high speed buffet onset The graph showing W NZ / versus M is used as the basis for AFM data expansion

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W Nz (1000 lb)

Mach

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1 lb = 0.4356 kg

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## Flight Envelope Ceiling

Maximum altitude may be limited by climb performance requirements
Rate of climb reduces as altitude increases Climb ceiling is the altitude where the rate of climb reaches a minimum acceptable value
No certification or operational requirements specify minimum rate of climb at the ceiling Typically, 300 ft/min is used as the threshold Lower values (down to 100 ft/min) or higher values (up to 500 ft/min) may also be used

Climb ceiling varies with weight, deviation from ISA, engine bleed extraction and climb speed schedule
Turning flight and flight envelope
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## Flight Envelope Maximum Certified Altitude

A limitation defined by the aircraft manufacturer and specified in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) A fixed value independent of other parameters such as weight, temperature,

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## Flight Envelope Maximum Cruise Speed

The maximum speed that can be achieved in level flight with maximum cruise thrust (MCR) on all engines Varies as a function of weight, altitude, deviation from ISA and engine bleed extraction

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## Flight Envelope VMO and MMO

The maximum operating speed and Mach number for the clean configuration A limitation established by the aircraft manufacturer and defined in the AFM Speed limitation at lower altitudes and Mach number limitation at higher altitudes Aural warning is provided if VMO or MMO are exceeded Example of VMO and MMO chart is shown on the next slide

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## Flight Envelope VFE and VLE

VFE is the maximum speed permitted with flaps extended
Fixed values of VFE are used for different flap/slat configurations

An AFM limitation may not be exceeded by the pilot during normal operation
Typically varies from 180 KIAS for most extended landing flap position to 230 KIAS for least extended take-off flap position

## VLE is the maximum speed permitted with landing gear extended

An AFM limitation VLE is a fixed number that is typically between 200 and 250 KIAS
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## Has been discussed earlier

Not a hard limit but operation below VMD (including effect of turn) is normally avoided because of increased pilot workload

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