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The Three Mental Operations

Exploring the Epistemic Foundations of the Science of Correct Reasoning

The need
1. Studying logic entails the understanding of how the mind works.

- Reasoning as a mental procedure needs to be shown, in a framework coming from the originary Organon - Aristotle.
2. These mental operations practically presents the Course Plantilla in Formal Logic.

- Familiarity allows one to understand the procedure and the necessity of undergoing each step so as to achieve the ends of reasoning.
3. Eventual realization of the limits of logic as a tool to truth and validity.

T
Simple Apprehension

he Acts of the Mind

A PROCEDURE WHERE THE MIND GRASPS A THING WITHOUT AFFIRMING OR DENYING IT.
SENSE EXPERIENCE external internal
COMMON SENSE, MEMORY, IMAGINATION, ESTIMATIVE FACULTY

qualities

T
Simple Apprehension
IDEA internal product
IDEOGENESIS birth of an idea

he Acts of the Mind

TERM expressed product

q1 q2 q3

External sense Internal sense


Idea Term

ABSTRACTION
Stripping off accidents to arrive at being. - Physical, Mathematical, Metaphysical

Terms
Tree

Material sign

Word; sensible conventional signs expressive of an idea.

Coconut
TREE COCONUT

ideas

Formal sign

Intellectual image/representation of an essence; the building blocks knowledge.

T
Judgment

he Acts of the Mind

THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE TWO APPREHENDED TERMS ARE JOINED THEN AFFIRMED OR DENIED.
IDENTITY

NON-IDENTITY

Materially expressed: spoken/written

MENTAL SENTENCE internal product Coconut

Tree

COCONUTS ARE TREES. PROPOSITION EXTERNAL PRODUCT -A statement or a component, standing as one, and is capable of expressing truth/falsity. -A plausible premise.

T
Reasoning

he Acts of the Mind

THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE WE DRAW A CONCLUSION FROM A GIVEN SET OF VALIDLY DRAWN PREMISES.

THE MIND PROCEEDS TO CERTAIN KNOWLEDGE BY WAY OF INFERENCE.

ARGUMENTATION internal product - ARGUMENT: group of statements that is claimed to provide support one of the others. ALL TREES ARE TALL ALL COCONUTS ARE TREES

SYLLOGISM expressed product.

Ergo: ALL COCONUTS ARE TALL.

- Premises: statements setting forth reason/evidence - Conclusion: statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply.

A, B, C

ideas A is B. proposition

A is B.
C is A. syllogism

: C is B.

The Acts of the Mind and their Features


NAME MENTAL PRODUCT 1ST ACT Simple Apprehension Concept 2ND ACT Judgment Mental Sentence 3RD ACT Reasoning Argument

LINGUISTIC EXPRESSION
EXAMPLES

Term
Man, Mortal

Declarative Sentences
Socrates is a man.

Paragraph
All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

STRUCTURAL PARTS None, unitary


QUESTION ANSWERED ASPECT OF REALITY GOOD WHEN HOW TO ACHIEVE BAD WHEN QUESTION TO HABITUALLY ASK What it is. Essence Clear Definition of terms Unclear What do you mean? (Define your terms)

Subject Term, Predicate Term


Whether it is. Existence True No one way. False What is your point? (State your conclusion.)

Premises, Conclusion
Why it is. Cause Valid Rules of Logic Invalid, Fallacious Why? (Prove it)