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EGR 334 Thermodynamics

Chapter 3: Section 11

Lecture 09:

Generalized Compressibility Chart

Today’s main concepts:

Universal Gas Constant, R Compressibility Factor, Z.

Be able to use the Generalized Compressibility to solve problems

Be able to use Z to determine if a gas can be considered to be an ideal gas.

Be able to explain Equation of State

Reading Assignment:

Read Chap 3: Sections 12-14

Homework Assignment:

From Chap 3: 92, 93, 96, 99

Limitation:

Like c p and c v , today’s topic is about compressible gases…. This method does not work for two phase mixtures such as water/steam. It only applies to gases.

Compressibility Factor, Z

Z

pv RT
pv
RT

and

where

p absolute pressure

T absolute temperature v molar specific volume

R

8.314 kJ/kmol K

1.986 Btu/lb

mol

o

R

1545 ft

lb /lb

f

mol

o

R

Universal Gas Constant

R can also be expresses on a per mole basis:

R

R

M

where M is the molecular weight (see Tables A-1 and A-1E)

Substance

Chem. Formula

R (kJ/kg-K)

R(Btu/lm-R)

Air

---

 
  • 0.2870 0.06855

Ammonia

NH 3

 
  • 0.4882 0.11662

Argon

Ar

 
  • 0.2082 0.04972

Carbon Dioxide

CO 2

 
  • 0.1889 0.04513

Carbon Monoxide

CO

 
  • 0.2968 0.07090

Helium

He

 
  • 2.0769 0.49613

Hydrogen

H 2

 
  • 4.1240 0.98512

Methane

CH 4

 
  • 0.5183 0.12382

Nitrogen

N 2

 
  • 0.2968 0.07090

Oxygen

O 2

 
  • 0.2598 0.06206

Water

H 2 O

 
  • 0.4614 0.11021

The constant R is called the Universal Gas Constant. Where does this constant come from? For

The constant R

is called the Universal Gas Constant.

Where does this constant come from?

For low pressure gases it was noted from experiment that there was a linear behavior between volume and pressure at constant temperature.

The constant R is called the Universal Gas Constant. Where does this constant come from? For

Pv

T

then

lim

P 0

R

and the limit as P0

The ideal gas model assumes low P molecules are elastic spheres

no forces between molecules

To compensate for non-ideal behavior we can use other equations of state (EOS) or use compressibility

Define the compressibility factor Z,

Z

Pv

RT

Z1 when ideal gas near critical point

T >> T c

or

(T > 2T c )

Step 1: Thus, analyze Z by first looking at the reduced variables

P

R

P

P

C

T

R

T

T

C

P c = Critical Pressure

T c = Critical Pressure

Step 2: Using the reduced pressure, p r and reduced temperature, T r determine Z from the Generalized compressibility charts.

(see Figures A-1, A-2, and A-3 in appendix).

Step 2: Using the reduced pressure, p and reduced temperature, T determine Z from the Generalized

Step 3:

Use Z to

  • a) state whether the substance behaves as an ideal gas, if Z ≈ 1

  • b) calculate the specific volume of the gas using

vZ

RT

where

p

v

v

R

R

M

M

The figures also let’s you

directly read reduced specific volume where

v '

R

v RT c p c
v
RT
c
p
c

Summarize:

1) from given information, calculate any two of these:

p

R

p

p

T

T

R

  • C T

C

v '

R

v RT c p c
v
RT
c
p
c

(Note:

p c and T c can be found on

Tables A-1 and A-1E)

2) Using Figures A-1, A-2, and A-3, read the value of Z

3) Calculate the missing property using

Z

pv

RT

or

Z

pv

Summarize: 1) from given information, calculate any two of these: p  R p p T

RT

(Note: M for different gases can be found on Table 3.1 on page 123.)

v R where v  R  M M  8.314 kJ/kmol K   o
v
R
where
v 
R 
M
M
8.314 kJ/kmol K
o
R
1.986 Btu/lb
R
mol
o
1545 ft
lb /lb
 R
f
mol

Example: (3.95) A tank contains 2 m 3 of air at -93°C and a gage pressure of 1.4 MPa. Determine the mass of air, in kg. The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

V = 2 m 3 T = -93°C p gage = 1.4 MPa p atm = 0.101 MPa

Example: (3.95) Determine the mass of air, in kg V = 2 m 3

T = -93°C

180 K

= p = p gauge + p atm = 1.4 MPa + 0.101 MPa = 1.5 MPa = 15 bar

From Table A-1 (p. 816):

For Air:

16)

T c = 133 K

p c = 37.7 bar

p

R

p



  • 15 0.40

p

37.7
C

T T 

R

T

C

180

133

1.35

Z=0.95

Z

pv

RT

p

 V

m

RT

m

pV

ZRT

pV

Z



R

M

T

m



15

10

5

N

2

m



2

m

3



0.95

8.314

kJ kmol kmol K  28.97 kg
kJ
kmol
kmol K
28.97
kg



180

K

1 kJ 1 J 1000 J 1 Nm 
1
kJ
1
J
1000
J
1
Nm

61.1 kg

Equations of State: Relate the state variables T, p, V

Ideal Gas

pvRT

Alternate Expressions

pV mRT

pv mRT

When the gas follows the ideal gas law,

Z = 1 p << p c

and / or T >> T c

u uT and hhTuTpv uTRT

Equations of State: Relate the state variables T, P, V

Ideal Gas

pvRT

Van der Waals

RedlichKwong

p

  • 2

  • 2

na

V

RT



V nb



nRT

b volume of particles

a attraction between particles

a

p

Vb

m

Equations of State: Relate the state variables T, P, V Ideal Gas pv  RT Van



TV Vb

mm

Peng-Robinson

p

RT

a

2

Vb V

m

m

  • 2 bV

m

b

2

virial

Z1B TpC Tp D Tp .....   2  3  B T  
Z1B TpC Tp D Tp .....


2

3
B T
C T
D T
Z  
1
.....
2
3
v
v
v

B Two molecule interactions C Three molecule interactions

Example: (3.105) A tank contains 10 lb of air at 70°F with a pressure of 30 psi. Determine the volume of the air, in ft 3 . Verify that ideal gas behavior can be assumed for air under these conditions.

m = 10 lb T = 70°F p = 30 psi

Example: (3.105) Determine the volume of the air, in ft 3 . Verify that ideal gas behavior can be assumed for air under these conditions.

m = 10 lb T = 70°F =

530°R

p = 30 psi= 2.04 atm

p

R

p



2.04

p

37.2
C

0.055

T T 

R

T

C

530

239

2.22

Z

pv

pV

RT mRT

For Air, (Table A-1E, p 864)

T c = 239 °R

and

p c = 37.2 atm

Z=

1.0

(Figure A-1)

  • V

mZRT

mZ

 R

M

T

p

p

V



1545

ft lb

f

lb

mol

R



1

lb

mol

28.97

lb

(10

lb

m

)(1.0)

/



530

R

65.4 ft
2

m

(30

lb f 144 in ) 2 2 in ft
lb
f
144 in
)
2
2
in
ft

3

Example 3:

Nitrogen gas is originally at p = 200 atm, T = 252.4 K. It is cooled at constant volume to T = 189.3 K. What is the pressure at the lower temperature?

SOLUTION:

From Table A-1 for Nitrogen

p cr = 33.5 atm,

T cr = 126.2 K

At State 1,

p r,1 = 200/33.5 = 5.97

and

T r,1 = 252.4/126.2 = 2.

According to compressibility factor chart , Z = 0.95

v r' = 0.34.

Following the constant v r' line until it intersects with the line at T r,2 = 189.3/126.2 = 1.5

gives

P r,2 = 3.55.

Thus P 2 = 3.55 x 33.5 = 119 atm.

Since the chart shows Z drops down to around 0.8 at State 2, so it would not be appropriate to treat it as an ideal gas law for this model.

End of Slides for Lecture 09