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Vehicle Dynamics
CEE 320
Steve Muench
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Outline
1. Resistance
a. Aerodynamic
b. Rolling
c. Grade
2. Tractive Effort
3. Acceleration
4. Braking Force
5. Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
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Main Concepts
Resistance
Tractive effort
Vehicle acceleration
Braking
Stopping distance
g rl a
R R R ma F + + + =
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Resistance
Resistance is defined as the force impeding
vehicle motion
1. What is this force?
2. Aerodynamic resistance
3. Rolling resistance
4. Grade resistance

g rl a
R R R ma F + + + =
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Aerodynamic Resistance R
a

Composed of:
1. Turbulent air flow around vehicle body (85%)
2. Friction of air over vehicle body (12%)
3. Vehicle component resistance, from radiators
and air vents (3%)
2
2
V A C R
f D a

=
3
2
V A C P
f D R
a

=
sec
550 1
lb ft
hp

=
from National Research Council Canada
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Rolling Resistance R
rl

Composed primarily of
1. Resistance from tire deformation (~90%)
2. Tire penetration and surface compression (~ 4%)
3. Tire slippage and air circulation around wheel (~ 6%)
4. Wide range of factors affect total rolling resistance
5. Simplifying approximation:
W f R
rl rl
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
147
1 01 . 0
V
f
rl
WV f P
rl
rl
R
=
sec
550 1
lb ft
hp

=
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Grade Resistance R
g
Composed of
Gravitational force acting on the vehicle
g g
W R u sin =
g g
u u tan sin ~
g g
W R u tan =
G
g
= u tan
WG R
g
=
For small angles,

g

W

g

R
g

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Available Tractive Effort
The minimum of:
1. Force generated by the engine, F
e
2. Maximum value that is a function of the
vehicles weight distribution and road-tire
interaction, F
max

( )
max
, min effort tractive Available F F
e
=
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Tractive Effort Relationships
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Engine-Generated Tractive Effort
Force




Power




r
M
F
d e
e
q c
0
=
( )
t 2
min
sec
60
rpm engine
550
lb ft torque
sec
lb ft
550 hp
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

F
e
= Engine generated tractive effort
reaching wheels (lb)
M
e
= Engine torque (ft-lb)

0
= Gear reduction ratio

d
= Driveline efficiency
r

= Wheel radius (ft)
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Vehicle Speed vs. Engine Speed
( )
0
1 2
c
t i rn
V
e

=
V

= velocity (ft/s)
r

= wheel radius (ft)
n
e
= crankshaft rps
i = driveline slippage

0
= gear reduction ratio
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Typical Torque-Power Curves
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Maximum Tractive Effort

Front Wheel Drive Vehicle



Rear Wheel Drive Vehicle


What about 4WD?
( )
L
h
L
h f l
W
F
rl f

=
1
max
( )
L
h
L
h f l
W
F
rl r

+
+
=
1
max
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Diagram

g
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Vehicle Acceleration
Governing Equation



Mass Factor
(accounts for inertia of vehicles rotating parts)

ma R F
m
=

2
0
0025 . 0 04 . 1 c + =
m
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Example
A 1989 Ford 5.0L Mustang Convertible starts on a flat grade from a dead
stop as fast as possible. Whats the maximum acceleration it can achieve
before spinning its wheels? = 0.40 (wet, bad pavement)
1989 Ford 5.0L Mustang Convertible
Torque 300 @ 3200 rpm
Curb Weight 3640
Weight Distribution Front 57% Rear 43%
Wheelbase 100.5 in
Tire Size P225/60R15
Gear Reduction Ratio 3.8
Driveline efficiency 90%
Center of Gravity 20 inches high
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Braking Force
Front axle



Rear axle


( ) | |
L
f h l W
F
rl r
bf
+ +
=

max
( ) | |
L
f h l W
F
rl f
br
+
=

max
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Braking Force
Ratio



Efficiency


( )
( ) rear
front
f h l
f h l
BFR
rl f
rl r
=
+
+ +
=

q
max
g
b
=
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Braking Distance
Theoretical
ignoring air resistance


Practical


Perception

Total
( )
( )
g rl b
b
f g
V V
S
u q

sin 2
2
2
2
1
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
G
g
a
g
V V
d
2
2
2
2
1
p p
t V d
1
=
p s
d d d + =
a
V V
d
2
2
2
2
1

=
For grade = 0
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Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
Worst-case conditions
Poor driver skills
Low braking efficiency
Wet pavement
Perception-reaction time = 2.5 seconds
Equation
r
t V
G
g
a
g
V
SSD
1
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
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Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
from ASSHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001
Note: this table assumes level grade (G = 0)
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SSD Quick and Dirty
( )
( ) ( )
( ) a
V V
V
V
G g a g
V V
d
2 2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
075 . 1
2 . 11
075 . 1
2 . 11
1
2
47 . 1
0 2 . 32 2 . 11 2 . 32 2
0 47 . 1
2
= = =
+

=

=
1. Acceleration due to gravity, g = 32.2 ft/sec
2
2. There are 1.47 ft/sec per mph
3. Assume G = 0 (flat grade)
p p p
Vt t V d 47 . 1 47 . 1
1
= =
V = V
1
in mph
a = deceleration, 11.2 ft/s
2
in US customary units
t
p
= Conservative perception / reaction time = 2.5 seconds
p s
Vt
a
V
d 47 . 1 075 . 1
2
+ =
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Primary References
Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).
Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third
Edition). Chapter 2

American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officals (AASHTO). (2001). A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.