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The chemistry of Champagne

Processing lines S05

Sarah DUMESNIL

Introduction

Champagne : the most famous sparkling wine

I- Information about champagne industry II- Process making of Champagne

I- Information about Champagne industry

History :
- Romans planted the first vineyards - Dom Prignom invented the method - Champage known worldwide => 18th century

Economy

300 millions bottles sold in 2004

I- Information about Champagne industry

The mark guaranteeing the quality


- Champagne = trade name

- Produce in Champagne (3000 ha)


- Specific climate (10C+ rain)

- Specific soil (chalky)


- Respect specific standards

II- Process making of Champagne


10 steps
Harvesting 1st Pressuring fermentation Yeast 2nd fermentation Yeast Riddling disgorging Dosage Blending

Bottling

Ageing

Sugar + wine

II- Process making of Champagne

1- Harvesting
- Middle September until begin October - Right balance between sugar acidity - Harvesting by hand, no machines - Quickly pressed, prevent from oxidation

II- Process making of Champagne


2- Pressuring
- Several times 4h

4000 kg = 2050 l of cuve 450 l of taille

II- Process making of Champagne


3- 1st Fermentation
- Addition of yeast - Fermentation 1 month - Sugar => alcohol

4- Blending
- Winemakers blend wines (soils, vineyards, years) - can go on for up to 5 months Millsime = only wines of one year

- Emission of CO2
- CO2 released

II- Process making of Champagne


5- Bottling
Add yeast for 2nd fermentation and bottled

6- 2nd fermentation
- Bottles put in cellars with low temperature (10-12C) - Laid horizontally => maintain contact between sediment and wine - 2nd fermentation, 6 weeks, level of alcohol + creates bubbles

7- Ageing
Champagne ages at least 15 months

II- Process making of Champagne


8- riddling
Aim : slid the deposit into the neck of the bottle - Bottles placed at a 45 degree angle - Handled, manually or automatically about 40 times - Turned of 1/8 or 1/4of a turn during 1 and 5 weeks - progressively brought back up to a vertical position

Manual riddling

Automatically riddling

II- Process making of Champagne

9- Disgorging
- Bottleneck dipped into a freezing bath (-20C) - Yeast is trapped in a ice plug in the cap - A disgorging machine removes the cap - The pressure shoots out the yeast ice plug.

10- Dosage
- Adjusting the blend - Addition of a combination of sugar and wine Corking and bottle dressing

Conclusion
Champagne conforms to standards
Process complicate and long

Reason of the price : 15 to 200


Silly to drink it only on special occasion

Have you got any questions?

Thank you for your attention

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