Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Ethanol Process Corn Milling

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Ethanol Production - Dry Milling Process


Corn Yeast

Grind

Fermentation
Beer

CO2

Fuel Ethanol
200 P

Slurry

Distillation
Whole Stillage

190 P

Dehydration

Denaturant

Product Storage

Cook
Centrifugation Wet Grains

Dryer

DDGS

Liquify

Thin Stillage

Evaporation Enzymes

Syrup

Thermal Oxidizer

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Process Diagram Corn Milling

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Process Diagram Corn Milling

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Corn Milling - Overview


The whole-kernel corn must be ground to the consistency of coarse flour to prepare the grain for efficient introduction of water and enzymes, as well as to make the mixture easy to pump. The Silo feeds the Dirty Day Bin, which in turn feeds the Scalpers: Scalpers remove material such as husks, cobs, and stalks Magnets ferrous metals The Scalpers feed the Clean Day Bin.

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Corn Milling - Overview


The Clean Day Bin feeds whole-kernel corn to the Hammer Mills, where it is ground into flour: Destroys the integrity of the protective covering (hull) of the corn kernel Creates small particles that facilitate rapid penetration of water throughout the starch Grind size is crucial to the final percent conversion of ethanol:

Too finely ground - makes it harder to separate the byproduct, DDG, from the water and ethanol later in the process
Too coarsely ground - results in less conversion of starch to ethanol later in the process

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Corn Milling - Overview


Average flour grind size is very important in determining how well the cook system and centrifuge systems work. Unfortunately, these two systems are at odds with each other and a compromise must be made in setting the grind size. Smaller grind size: Allows the cook system to work more efficiently since smaller particles absorb water more easily. Water causes the starch to swell or gelatinize. Starch that does not become gelatinized is less likely to be converted to dextrin and fermented into ethanol later in the process, thereby lowering total yield. Tends to increase the density of the dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS tend to have a relatively low density, a disadvantage in transporting. Railcars are generally filled based on volume rather than weight restrictions.
Ethanol Process Fundamentals
7

Corn Milling - Overview


Larger grind size reduces the amount of fine suspended solids which pass through the centrifuges during DDG production. Suspended solids not removed during centrifugation end up in the backset and thin stillage Material in the backset represents unfermentable solids in recycled water that goes to the fermenters This solid material has limited benefit to the fermentation, but takes up space in the fermenter and effectively reduces the usable volume The solids in the thin stillage must be concentrated into syrup through evaporation, which can then be recombined with the wet distiller's grains and further dried to produce DDGS

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Corn Milling - Hammer Mill


Hammer mill: Corn is fed into a cylindrical grinding chamber Inside the chamber is a rapidly rotating drum with a series of metal bars Bars have free-swinging metal plates that have hardened metal hammers attached at the ends Outer boundary of the grinding chamber is a heavy metal screen, about inch from the edge of the hammers Impact of the hammers causes the kernels to shatter Small pieces pass through the metal screens while larger pieces bounce around in the grinding chamber until they are small enough to pass through the screens

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

Corn Milling - Hammer Mill

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

10

Corn Milling - Hammer Mill

Hammers

Screens

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

11

Corn Milling Dust Collection


A dust collection system maintains a negative pressure on the Hammer Mills. There are emission standards for: Particulate Matter Particulate Matter less than 10 microns Opacity

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

12

Corn Milling Summary


Hammer Mills grind whole-kernel corn into flour: Destroys the integrity of the corn kernel Creates small particles that facilitate rapid penetration of water throughout the starch Grind size is crucial to the final percent conversion of ethanol: Too finely ground - makes it harder to separate the byproduct, DDG, from the water and ethanol later in the process Too coarsely ground - results in less conversion of starch to ethanol later in the process

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

13