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Defining Circulation
Circulation is the number of copies of a publication that are distributed into the marketplace. INCLUDES

copies of the publication that are sold to consumers, copies targeted to specific individuals or locations at no cost.


Circulation -> initially reported in a publishers statement (a.k.a. pink sheet), which reflects the publishers best estimate of the number of copies being distributed for a specific six-month period of time: January through June or July through December.
WHITE SHEET/AUDIT REPORT Audit service bureaus then analyze the publishers statements for accuracy and issue their findings in an audit report (a.k.a. white sheet). Audit reports are generally published on an annual basis.

The Pink Slip

Circulation Segmentation
Data is segmented in multiple ways:

How a consumer obtains a magazinepaid or nonpaid segments, including newsstand, subscription, sponsored subscription or verified
Geographically Demographically


Geographic information by state. Circulation by population density (based on A.C. Nielsens A, B, C or D county definitions).

Advertising editions by region or city,

County level and state data

Designated market area (DMA) breakouts that allow the advertiser to align magazine data with data from other media.

Typical breakouts for demographic editions include:

Income (generally for magazine editions targeted to high-income consumers) Gender (e.g., a female-select version of a business publication) Occupation (usually targeted to professional groups, such as business executives, physicians, etc.)

Audit Bureaus

ABC and BPA Worldwide (BPA) are the two major magazine circulation audit bureaus in the United States.

Sponsored Subscriptions

Sponsored subscriptions reflect subscriptions sold to one or more businesses that want to provide added value to targeted individuals or public places. All copies or subscriptions purchased in quantities of 11 or more, which promote the professional or business interests of the purchaser, are considered "sponsored" subscriptions.

For example, a high-end department store might purchase subscriptions to a fashion magazine for its best customers.

What is ABC

ABC founded in 1948 Not for profit Voluntary organization consisting of Publishers, Advertisers and Advertising Agencies Done pioneering work in developing audit procedures to verify the circulation data published by those newspapers and periodicals Those newspapers and periodicals earn the right to display its emblem.

ABC <-> Publishers Interaction

ABC lay down a standard and uniform procedure by which a member publisher shall compute its net paid sales. ABC approved Chartered Accountants verify the circulation figure Check if circulation figures confirm to the rules and regulations as set out by the Bureau. Bureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publishers

Importance of Facts and figures

Important tool in the hands of the advertising business community. Available online to all Members of the Bureau (http://www.auditbureau.org) at no extra cost. An Advertiser would like to know the facts and figures before investing his money in advertising. An Advertiser ought to know how many people buy a publication and in which area. The ABC gives all these vital facts every six months. Facts Based on AUDIT Not OPINIONS or GUESS WORKS !!! To get maximum value for their clients, the ABC Certificates enable advertising agencies to compare the circulation trends of various newspapers and periodicals.

Advertising and Sales

Two factors Advertisers require to know to what extent any advertising medium is an effective sales promoter are (1) cost of the advertisement and (2) the results which he expects from the advertisement. Any calculation of results must necessarily be based on the scope of audience which the advertiser is addressing and in the case of a newspaper or a periodical this is directly related to number of copies which are in circulation. As far as the advertisers are concerned, more and more effective distribution of their advertising investments is ensured by the circulation data