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SUMMER TRAINING 2010

An Overview
Abhi Maheshwari VII Sem ECE JIET Jodhpur

Founded in 2009 A Joint Venture between Unitech Group [India] and Telenor [ Norway ] Telenor , the sixth largest mobile operator in the world, holds a 67.25 % majority stake in Uninor .

Scope of Training
Basics of Communication GSM Technology and Architecture Mobile Number Portability ,

implementation and testing

GSM stands for

Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM : Some facts


GSM evolved because of the need for a standard mobile telephone system that could be deployed across Europe
It uses the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

[ GMSK ] technique for modulation


In India , cellular services started around 1995

GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands

Why GSM ?
Dominant global market share Large number of infrastructure and handset vendors giving advantage in terms of price and other

commercial terms

Wide choice of handsets

Seamless interoperability between networks and handsets


Global footprint for international roaming including SMS, data and other value added services

GSM ARCHITECTURE
PSTN

GMSC
MSC

VLR

HLR
AUC

Network Switching System

EIR

ME

BSC BTS

BTS BTS

Mobile Station

BSS

GSM ARCHITECTURE SIMPLIFIED VIEW


PSTN BSC BTS BTS MSC BSC

Mobile Station (MS)


Mobile Station
Subscriber Identity Module [ SIM ]

Mobile Equipment

Mobile station provides user access to GSM network for Voice & Data Subscriber data is read from a SIM card that plugs into MS Each MS has a unique number called as IMEI number, Mobile Transmit and Receive voice at 13 KB/s over air interface

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Air interface
signalling Ciphering

Speech processing (channel coding, interleaving, and


burst formatting) Generation of alarms and statistics Baseband/Radio frequency transformation

BSC - Base Station Controller

BSC - Base Station Controller


Connection establishment between the MS and the
NSS

Mobility management Statistical raw data collection

Several BTSs are connected to the BSC


BSC Manages channel allocation, handovers and
release of channels at connected BTSs

MSC Mobile Switching Centre

MSC Mobile Switching Centre


Exchange where calls are established,

maintained and released Database for all subscribers and their associated features. Communicates with the BSCs MSC is weighted on the number of subscribers it can support.

HLR - Home Location Register


MSC has all subscriber database stored in HLR HLR has all permanent subscriber database MSC communicates with HLR to get data for

subscribers on call

MSC

HLR

HLR will have the series of all subscriber numbers, which may not be activated or issued .

A subscription when activated is registered in

VLR Visiting Location Register

VLR VLR has all the subscriber numbers which are active. VLR has a temporary database of all active subscribers (on/off, location information)

HLR

MSC

VLR

VLR Visiting Location Register


HLR
MSC

VLR

VLR

MSC

MSC communicates with HLR for subscribers

coming from different MSCs. If the subscriber is found valid, then it registers the subscriber in the VLR

AUC Authentication Centre


Authentication is a process by which a SIM is

verified Secret data and the verification process algorithm are stored in AUC AUC is the element which carries out the verification of the SIM AUC is associated with the HLR

MS

MSC

HLR

AUC

EIR (Equipment Identity Register)


EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database

which has a series of IMEIs MSC asks the Mobile to send its IMEI MSC then checks the validity of IMEI with the EIR All IMEIs are stored in EIR with relevant classifications
EIR

MSC

What is Mobile Number Portability

MNP

Mobile Number Portability [ MNP ]


Number portability enables a subscriber to switch between services, locations, or operators while retaining the original mobile number, without compromising on quality, reliability, services and operational convenience.
A subscriber can choose to keep his number functional even if he switches services of a Mobile Service Provider Thus his/her old number would still be functional on the new network

Advantages of MNP
Subscribers benefit Convenience of customer to personalize the

same number across the Operators, Locations and Services. (No age for your number.) Better QOS, more features and services, better tariff plans for customers. No cost incurred to notify the new contact details to the others ( friends, family, business..)

Advantages of MNP
Operator s benefit Healthy competition and an

opportunity to explore more services/features. Operator with best QOS will gain the subscribers. Introduction of innovative service.

MNP - Some facts


Out of several types of number portability DoT has recommended Mobile Number Portability (MNP) for all mobile service operators Two central clearing houses for MNP database covering North-West zone (Syniverse) and SouthEast zone (Telecordia) These CCH will download the MNP database in

operators NPDB on daily basis MNP will be restricted only for intra circle operators MNP will be allowed between CDMA and GSM operators ACQ (All Call Query) direct routing method to implement MNP

MNP Terminologies related to network


Donor Network

Originating Network
NPDB

Recipient Network

Originating Network Donor Network Recipient Network NPDB

: Network of the calling party : Previous subscription of Called party : Present subscription of Called party : Number Portability Data Base (maintains portability and provides routing instructions)

Commonly used terms


Non Ported Number Mobile Numbers belonging to

UNINOR. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with HLR (PC & SSN) information. Will be defined in the Range DN Table of the NPDB.
Ported In Number Number ported into UNINOR from

another network. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with HLR (PC & SSN) information. Will be defined in the Single DN Table of the NPDB.
Ported Out Number Number Ported out to another

network from UNINOR. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with RN information. Will be defined in the Single DN Table of the NPDB.

(ACQ) All call query- Direct routing method


ORIG NW NPDB
LRN + B-MSISDN B-MSISDN

Recipient
Network

Whenever the call is

LRN + B-MSISDN

Originating Network

Donor Network

ACQ is called as direct routing as donor network will not be included

during entire call flow.

originated, the Originating n/w will query its NPDB NPDB will acknowledge the query by adding a prefix (LRN) to the B MSISDN if the B MSISDN is ported out. Based on the prefix (LRN) the Originating n/w will route the call to the recipient n/w without involving the Donor network.