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Seminar Presentation on

Power Allocation In SC-FDMA Systems


Presented By: Prabhash Kumar Singh Enrollment No: 12531012 Under the guidance of

Dr. Anshul Tyagi

Contents
1. Motivation 1.2 Reasons for using SC-FDMA

2.

Multicarrier modulation scheme 2.2 OFDMA


2.3 SC-FDMA Introduction to SC-FDMA 3.2 Subcarrier Mapping 3.3 Comparison of different mapping PAPR Conclusion

3.

4. 5.

Motivation Current Wireless Technologies


Standards Data Rates

3G 3G 3.5G

WCDMA/UMTS 384 Kbps CDMA-2000 384 Kbps

HSDPA/HSUPA 5-30 Mbps

What Next ?
Standards Data Rate

4G

LTE

4G

WiMAX

100-200 Mbps 100-200 Mbps

These are the New Access Technology

Demand for higher data rate is leading to utilization of wider transmission bandwidth Standards Transmission Bandwidth

2G 3G 4G

GSM

200 KHz

CDMA
WCDMA CDMA-2000 LTE,WiMAX

1.25 MHz
5 MHz 5 MHz Up to 20 MHz

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

Downlink OFDMA

Uplink SC-FDMA

Why Using SC-FDMA In Uplink Communication ??

SC-FDMA

Low PAPR

1. Better Peak Power Characteristics 2. To avoid Non Linear Distortion

1.Better Peak power Characteristic


SC-FDMA signal has better peak power characteristic due to Its inherent single carrier structure.It greatly benefit the mobile Terminals in terms of tranmit power efficiency and manufacturing cost.

2.Non Linear Distortion


Non Linearity in transmitter power amplifier most influences Performance of freqency division techniques.In FDMA systems Vulnerability to amplifier nonlinearity increases with high PAPR Of thr transmitted signal.SC-FDMA has PAPR lower than that Ofalternate tranmission scheme OFDMA.

Multi Carrier Modulation Scheme


Subcarrier Spacing=B/N N subcarrier

-(N/2 -1)B/N

-B/N

B/N

NB/2N

Xi : data transmitted on i th subcarrier Si(t)=Xi ej2fit


fi=iB/N is the center frequency of the ith subcarrier There are now N subcarriers ,hence there are N data streams

Multicarrier Composite transmitted signal

ith data stream modulated On ith subcarrier

This is the signal we are transmitting in to the air Now the received signal will be

In the absence of noise

To recover symbols corresponding to N subcarrier ,coherently demodulate each stream with corresponding subcarrier This scheme is called MCM The advantage of using the above scheme is, Since B/N <<coherence bandwidth, each subcarrier experiences freqyency flat fading hence there is no ISI in time domain. But implementing bank of N modulators and demodulators Is challenging!!!

use OFDMA !!

OFDMA
Consider the u th sample of MCM signal

T = sampling rate= 1/B IDFT of transmission symbols X(0)X(1)X(2).X(N-1) At the receiver to recover the information symbols on can Correspondingly Employ an FFT operation. Advantage: Much lower implementation complexity compared to using bank of modulators.

PAPR IN OFDMA SYSTEMS X(0) X(1) X(N-1) IFFT x(0) x(1) x(N-1) IFFT samples of Information symbols

Information symbols

k th IFFT sample

Average Power =

Peak Power=

PAPR rises with N i.e the no. of subcarriers For instance,In an OFDM system with N=512 ,and BPSK modulation, The PAPR at the output can be as high as 10 db !!

TO REDUCE PAPR USE SC-FDMA

Typical OFDM Transmitter


S/P DEMUX N Point IFFT

Causing high PAPR in OFDM

P/S MUX

Modified OFDM Transmitter

FFT and IFFT cancel out each other

S/P DEMUX

N Point FFT

N Point IFFT

P/S MUX

New Blocks

Output is a single carrier output

However instead of using an N point FFT block,one can employ an M<N point FFT to reduce PAPR while still retaining the properties of OFDM system

Transmitter and Receiver structure of SC-FDMA system

No of Symbols M in FFT <

N the no of sub-carriers

The cyclic prefix is a copy of the last part of the block. It is Inserted at the start of each block for two reasons. 1. CP acts as a guard time between successive blocks to prevent inter-block interference(IBI) due to multipath propagation. 2. Since the CP is a copy of the last part of the block, it converts a discrete time Linear convolution into a discrete time circular convolution.

Subcarrier Mapping

x(0)
x(1) M point FFT

X(0) X(1) X(M-1)

Subcarrier Mapping

N Point IFFT

M to N subcarrier

.Subcarrier Mapping is a key operation in SC-FDMA


.Assigns M frequency domain modulation symbols to N subcarrier

Subcarrier Mapping Modes

1. In the localized subcarrier mapping mode, the modulation symbols are to M adjacent subcarriers.

2. In the distributedmode, the symbols are equally spaced across the entire channel bandwidth.
3. In both modes, the IDFT in the transmitter assigns zero amplitude to the N-M unoccupied subcarriers. 4. The distributed mode with equidistance between occupied Subcarriers is referred to as Interleaved FDMA (IFDMA)

An example of different subcarrier mapping schemes for M=4 N=12

M=4 N = 12 subcarriers, In the localized mode, the four modulation symbols occupy subcarriers 0, 1, 2, and 3: Y0 = X0, Y1 = X1, Y2 = X2, Y3 = X3, and Yi = 0 for i = 0, 1, 2, 3. In the distributed mode with modulation symbols equally spaced over all the subcarriers, Y0 = X0, Y2 = X1, Y4 = X2, Y6 = X3, and in the interleaved mode, Y0 = X0, Y3 = X1, Y6 = X2,Y9 = X3.

Comparison of Subcarrier Mapping Schemes

1.The IFDMA signal maintains the input time symbols in each sample whereas LFDMA and DFDMA have more complicated time samples because of the complexweighted sum of the input symbols. This implies that higher peak power is expected for LFDMA and DFDMA signals, which we will see through the numerical analysis of peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) 2. All three single carrier subcarrier mapping schemes exhibit lowerpeak power than OFDMA.

Peak Power Characteristic of SC-FDMA signal

1.PAPR relates to the power amplifier efficiency at the


transmitter, 2.maximum power efficiency is achieved when the amplifier operates at the saturation point. Lower PAPR allows operation of the power amplifier close to saturation resulting in higher efficiency. 3.We can express the theoretical relationship between PAPR [dB] and transmit power efficiency as follows

where n is the power efficiency and n max is the maximum power efficiency. For class A power amplifier, n max is 50%and for class B, 78.5%

PAPR is characterized using the CCDF function i.e COMPLEMENTARY CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

We can see that all the cases for SC-FDMA have indeed lower PAPR than that of OFDMA. Also, IFDMA has the lowest PAPR, and DFDMA and LFDMA have very similar levels of PAPR.

Conclusion
SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access technique which has similar structure and performance to OFDMA. Currently adopted for uplink multiple access scheme for 3GPP LTE Two types of subcarrier mapping, distributed and localized, give system design flexibility A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDMA is low PAPR. Efficient transmitter Subcarrier mapping scheme has a significant impact on PAPR.

FINAL WORD

SC-FDMA

Low PAPR

Thank You