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(Steam power Plant)

India is one of the worlds largest consumer of energy

Conventional sources: Thermal, Hydro and Nuclear.

Non- conventional: Wind, solar, Geothermal, tidal. Installed capacity 1,61,352MW Thermal = 95151.74MW Nuclear = 4,120MW Hydro = 36877.76MW RES = 13242.41MW Annual power production 680 billion KWH

Break up of Power
Thermal Power Plants 75%
Hydro Electric Power Plants - 21% Nuclear Power Plants - 4% Installed wind power Generation 9655MW 30% to 40% of electrical power is lost in transmission

and distribution



Power system owned by state electricity

boards. Private sector utilities operate in Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad Regional electricity boards Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western, North-eastern. Power Grid corporation- Central.

Thermal Power Plants

Installed Capacity 93,392.64MW

Coal based 77,458.88MW 2. Gas Based 14,734.01MW 3. Oil Based 1199.75MW


General Layout of Thermal Power Station

Main Components
Fuel Handling Unit
Ash Handling Unit Boiler Unit Feed Water Unit Cooling Water Unit Generator Unit Turbine Unit

Main Circuit
Fuel And Ash Circuit
Air And Gas Circuit Feed Water And Steam Circuit Cooling Water Circuit

Fuel And Ash Circuit

Fuel stored and fed to the boiler through conveyor

belts. Broken down into proper shape for complete burning. Ash thus generated after burning is removed from the boiler through ash handling equipment

Air And Gas Circuit

Air is required for combustion of fuel and is supplied

through fans Air is passed through air preheater to extract energy from flue gases for proper burning of the fuel Flue gases have ash and several gases which are passed through the precipitator(dust collector) and go to atmosphere through chimney.

Feed Water And Steam Circuit

Steam Converted to water by condenser. Water is demineralized & hence not wasted to have

better economic operation of the plant. Some part of steam and water is lost while passing through different parts. Boiler feed pump feeds water into the boiler drum where it is heated to form steam. Wet steam is again heated in super heater before passing through the turbine Steam is expanded in the turbine to run it. After which again it goes to boiler for reheating

Cooling Water Circuit

To condensate the steam, large quantity of cooling

water is required which is taken from river or pondage After passing through the condenser, it is fed back to the river or Pondage



Turbine Full View


Selection Of site
Availability of cheap land.
Availability of water. Availability of fuel. Possibility of future expansion of the plant. Away from the urban areas due to pollution. The initial cost of plant. Magnitude and nature of load to be handled.