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Dairy Products


Dairy products are foods or drinks that are created from cows milk. However, they can also be produced using buffalos milk, goats milk, or even sheeps milk.

Dairy products are often considered to be high in calcium and vitamins, and are a good source of energy.

Dairy Products

High in calcium and vitamins, and are a good source of energy. Highly perishable Store at 41F (5) or lower

Store separately from other food, especially those with strong odors.

List Of Dairy Products

Milk powder Condensed milk

5.Evaporated milk 3.Cultured butter milk

4.Baked milk

6.Sour cream

7. Clotted cream





Cottage cheese

Cream cheese

Other Dairy Products


Whole liquid Dry Condensed

Milk, continued

Pasteurized heated to destroy harmful bacteria

Homogenized treated so that milk fat appears uniformly throughout the product


Protein - body building and repair Carbohydrates - energy and warmth Fats - energy and warmth, carries fat-soluble vitamins ADEK Vitamins - Growth, prevents diseases Vitamin D - bones and teeth, prevents rickets Vitamin A - aids growth, prevents night blindness Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) - regulates production of energy from dietary fat, carbohydrates and protein. Minerals - strong bones and teeth, body regulation Calcium - bones and teeth, prevents osteoporosis Phosphorus - bones and teeth

Processing Terms
Pasteurization heating raw milk at a high enough temperature for a sufficient time to remove pathogens (bacteria) and increase shelf life. Has no effect on nutritional value. Homogenization breaks up and disperses milk fat throughout the milk to prevent cream from rising to the top

UHT milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteurized milk, stays fresher longer, has longer shelf life (up to 3 months) because milk is packaged in sterilized, air free packaging.

Fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food

Why the Raw milk needs to be processed?

Pathogens come from the farm environment and may be present in raw milk, even from healthy cows due to poor sanitary conditions.

The types of pathogens and their prevalence in raw milk

Brucella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Coliforms, Coxiella burnetii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium bovis and tuberculosis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica.

Milk and Probiotics

live bacteria that provide a health benefit when consumed in adequate amounts. Many probiotic bacteria are lactic acid bacteria, meaning that they use lactose as an energy source, and hence are associated with dairy products.

Probiotics improve the general health of the gastrointestinal tract reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance help in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome

Probiotics also enhance the immune system and help reduce some allergic reactions


Yogurt is a dairy product ,produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang.

Microorganism involve in yogurt production

Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt.

Spoilage of yogurt

Molds, bacteria and yeast can spoil yogurt during storage. The taste of spoiled yogurt is bitter and the smell is strong. While yogurt typically has a pH low enough to offer some protection against the growth of harmful bacteria, spoilage organisms can still affect the quality of the product quickly and turn it into something unappealing to eat.

Nutritional facts about yogurt

Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt

is easier to digest than milk. contributes to colon health. . improves the bioavailability of other nutrients. can boost immunity. aids healing after intestinal infections. can decrease yeast infections. is a rich source of calcium. is an excellent source of protein. can lower cholesterol.

Health concerns

Yogurt can be a staple in a healthy diet, providing you with a good source of calcium, protein, vitamin D and potassium. Picking any yogurt brand and eating it in excess, however, can contribute to problems such as weight gain, high cholesterol and heart disease. The many yogurt brands in your supermarket fall across the nutrition spectrum, from heart-healthy to fatty, sugar-filled products little better for you than candy. Read yogurt labels carefully to choose the healthiest type.


Cheese is a group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, depend on the type of cheese. Lactococcus.lactis,leuconostoc.cremoris are most often use in cheese.

spoilage of cheese

Cheese is an important product of fermentative lactic acid bacteria. Particularly in the past, cheese was valued for its long shelf life. Due to its reduced water content, and acidic pH, bacterial growth is severely inhibited. This causes cheese to spoil much more slowly than other milk products. Consequently, Cottage cheese can be spoiled by yeasts, molds and bacteria. The most common bacterial spoilage is slimy curd caused by Alcaligenes spp.Penicillum, Mucor and other fungi also grow well on cottage cheese and impart stale or yeasty flavors.

Nutritional facts about cheese

There is a very high concentration of essential nutrients in cheese including high quality proteins and calcium, vitamins. Cheese contains substances called Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Sphingolipids that help prevent cancer.

Health Risks

Cheese and other dairy products may actually raise the risk of breast cancer. Cheese can contribute to the development of colic, allergies and digestive problems. It can also increase the risk of iron deficiency in children. Children with unidentified sensitivities to dairy products can even develop chronic ear problems and respiratory problems.

Ice creams

Ice-cream represents a congealed dairy product produced by freezing a pasteurized mixture of milk, cream, milk solids other than fat, sugars, emulsifier and stabilizers. Products of dairy origin are the main ingredients of ice-cream. These include whole milk, skimmed milk, cream, frozen cream, condensed milk products and milk solid. Other ingredients include flavoring matters and water. Fruits, nuts, candies and syrups are optionally added into ice-cream for flavor enrichment. Two types of ice-cream, soft and hard, are available on the market.

Ice Cream Manufacture

The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows: blending of the mix ingredients pasteurization homogenization aging the mix freezing packaging hardening

Microorganisms present in ice-cream

There are some steps in the production of icecream that can lead to the microbiological hazards. Heat treatment by pasteurization can destroy most of the specific pathogens that pose risk to public health. However, the potential microbiological hazards found in the final products can still be introduced after pasteurization through adding contaminated ingredients and improper handling procedures.

This is especially important in the preparation of soft ice-cream as its final stage of the production is carried out at point of sale. Some pathogens that can survive in food even at low temperature include Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. For ice-cream products, L. monocytogenes is of significant food safety concern worldwide .

Advantages & Disadvantages of Ice Cream to Human Health Ice cream is rich in carbohydrates, fats & proteins making it an energy-dense food. A Source of Vitamins and Minerals

Lactose Content

Ice cream may cause problems for certain people because it is dairy-based and contains lactose, a milk sugar. These individuals, referred to as lactose-intolerant, are deficient in lactase, the enzyme needed to digest lactose, and may experience digestive upset if they consume ice cream