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States of Consciousness

Modules 17-19

Dream Journal Instructions

Journal must be Keep your journal & a pen/pencil by your bed On ayou weird sideStoryline, note.I may end up in Record EVERYTHING can. people, your dreams. Sorry. names, locations or just general vibes.
Worry about school For appropriateness some reason, I later tend to represent
Psych class, which is why you are Document the date dreamt trying to remember your dreams.

Remember to consciously think that you remember your dreams that able toWILL be handed in. night. It helps!

Ex. Night of

Write down things you did that day(s) that might relate it.

Waking & Sleeping Rhythms

Module 17

Why do we need sleep?

Evolutionary Perspective: Protection

Restorative Function: recuperates body and brain tissue and reorganizes memory Growth: when we sleep the pituitary gland is active and helping to stimulate growth

Consciousness: Our awareness of various cognitive processes such as sleeping, dreaming, concentration & decision making.

Waking Consciousness

Conscious awareness Thoughts, feelings, perceptions when awake.

Altered States of Consciousness (ASC)

Mental state which differs from normal waking consciousness.

Ex. Many activities are performed w/o conscious awareness (typing on the keyboard)

Subconscious puts parts together into whole and acts before we are consciously aware (perception)




Daydreaming & Fantasy



Expresses hidden desires w/out guilt.

No benefit at all Decreases positive creative imagination?

Helps up cope with difficult situations

Biological Rhythms

Annual Cycle

Seasonal: Explains Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

28 Day Cycle

Menstrual cycle for women

24 Hour Cycle

Alternating between sleep & alertness

90 Minute Cycle

Sleep stages

Circadian Cycles: Biological Clock

Follows the sun (24 hr cycles)

Body temp rises in the am, peaks midday then lowers at night.

Levels of epinephrine & melatonin affect sleep Examples

Jet Lag-Disruption of rhythm Daylight Savings Shift Changes-days to nights Melatonin & Light Therapies can be used to reset circadian rhythms

Sleep Stages


Slow pulse, relaxed muscles, side to side movement of eyes. Alpha waves Easily awoken
Lower heart rate, blood pressure & temp. Dont respond to light or noise Hard to awaken Delta Waves


Lowest level of HR, BP & Temp. Deepest sleep

Sleep Cycles

40 min-1hour into the sleep cycle Move back to Stage 1

REM SleepParadoxical Sleep

Very difficult to wake

Rapid Eye Movement (REM)

Increased HR, brain activity, breathing Most vivid dreaming occurs here (NREM)-Non-REM Sleep

Approximately 90 min.

4-5 rounds of REM sleep

Although vitals are aroused, the person is very hard to wake up. It is a paradox!

Dreams: 4-5 Dreams a Night Total of 1-2 Hours

Latent Content-DEEP

Manifest Content-SURFACE

Hidden unconscious thoughts & desires are exposed in our dreams.

Dreams are modified by pre-sleep events.

Surface content No deeper meaning


We remember the part of the dream that is the closest to us waking. Preoccupied w/something? = Recurring Dream Freud believed dreams are a psychic safety valve for our emotions.

Stressed about work = Dream about work

Sleepwalking is most common in children & boys.

Freudian Dream Theory: Explained

Manifest Content: surface

Latent Content: deep

Traces of the days experiences

Underlying meaning psychic safety valve Key to understanding inner conflicts.

Work all day? Dream about work.

Tetris Experiment

Sleeping environment stimuli may intrude.

Phone, music, smell

Freud: sexual imagery Wish-fulfillment theory

Other Dream Theories

Information Processing

Sift, sort & fix the days experiences in our memory. REM sleep facilitates memory.

Teens & Sleep: sleep bulimia (2000)

Ex. A & B Students got 25 min. more sleep a night.

Activation-Synthesis Theory: Physiological Function

neural activity is random Brain makes sense of these visual bursts

What is REM Rebound?

Its the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.

How Much Sleep Do We Need?

Fact: Most people sleep for 25 years on average! Need varies by age.
Younger you are = more sleep you need

Can I Make up for lost sleep in one night?


Restorative Function

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Disorders


Difficulty falling & remaining asleep. Approx. 35 mil people

Breathing is interrupted. 2-4% of population


Fall asleep without warning. Immediate REM Sleep Hereditary

Sleep Disorders

Night Terrors vs. Nightmares Sleep Walking & Sleep Talking

Most common in children. Double HR & Breathing Stage 4 Seldom Remembered Runs in families Usually harmless Seldom remembered Stage 4

Sleep Disorders

Artificial Alterations in Consciousness

Sensory Deprivation Meditation

Reduction of sensory stimuli. Unable to think, irritable & hallucinations.

Concentration, reflection or focusing of thoughts. Suppresses the SNS


Trancelike state where people respond to suggestions readily. Clinical applications: Pain Management.

Meditation Activity

Clear Your Mind Focus on Breathing out your nose or the music. Document:

1. Breath Rate (# of breaths in 60 sec.) 2. Heart Rate ( # of pulses in 60 sec.) 3. How Do You Feel?


What things popped into your mind? What was easy about meditation? What was difficult?

Lucid Dreams: A dream in which the dreamer knows they are dreaming.

Lucid Dreaming: Hollywood Style

Module 18

Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness?

Hypnosis: one person suggests certain perceptions, feelings or actions to another.

Posthypnotic Amnesia: supposed inability to recall the hypnosis experience.

Posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion made during hypnosis to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized.

Used to help control undesirable behaviors.


As Therapy:

Hypnosis as a social phenomenon.

Disassociation: a split in consciousness which allows thoughts & behaviors to occur simultaneously.

Can You be Hypnotized?

Ex. Lamaze method of childbirth.

Drugs & Consciousness

Module 19

Substance Use, Abuse & Dependence

Substance Use: using drugs for valid medical reasons.

Tolerance: need to up doses in order to prevent withdrawal.


Body is dependent.

Substance Abuse: drug use that diminished responsibilities


Withdrawal: physical & psychosocial effects that follow discontinued use of a drug.

Dependence: compulsive drug taking.

Tremors, pain, possible death.


Clinical Dependence: Definition (APA, 1994) Experiencing 3 of 7 of the symptoms in a 12 month period.

Developing Tolerance
2 beers = 6 pack

Devoting a great deal of time to obtaining drug.

Giving up social activities to use drugs. Continued use even while undergoing physical & psychological problems caused by the substance.

Experiencing Withdrawal
Anxiety, nausea, convulsions, hallucinations.

Extended use of substance past prescribed time period.

Persistent desire to quit

How to Help an Addict

1. 2.

4. 5.


Talk to Someone Use professional resources Never try to fix them all by yourself. Help Hotlines Teens & Young Adults are at a AA, NA, GA high risk of addiction. Stay Positive Experimentation usually ends
in addiction. No one wakes up one day and says I want to be an addict.

Helpful sites: http://www.abovetheinfluence.com www.aa.org

Depressants: Slow Down the Nervous System


Most popular Depresses the nervous system Inhibits critical judgment Increases impulsive behavior

2/3 fatal car accidents are caused by alcohol


Sedatives Similar effects to alcohol Rarely used as treatment- (epilepsy & arthritis)


Derived from the poppy plant Popular in the 19th century as a medical treatment Euphoric feeling, but short lived Highly addictive- violent withdrawal symptoms

Hallucinogens: Alters Auditory & Visual Perception

Occurs naturally in fungi. LSD is synthetic 1949-created 1960-popularized No withdrawal effects / high tolerance bad trips = panic, violence, suicide, memory loss



Cannabis plant-THC (active ingredient) Mild hallucinogen Respiratory & cardiovascular damage Paranoia, apathy, mood disorders

Stimulants: Stimulate the Nervous System

Naturally in coffee, tea & cocoa Mainly benign Large amounts causes anxiety, insomnia, heart palpitations, diarrhea


Naturally only in tobacco Increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels Causes cancer, aging


Resemble epinephrine Euphoria, then crash=HIGHLY ADDICTIVE Methamphetamines are becoming increasingly more common & dangerous.


Crystalline form- crack Widely popular in the 19th century Coca Plant found in South America HIGHLY ADDICTIVE

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