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ENERGY RESOURCES

AND

TECHNOLOGIES
TO ACHIEVE

ENERGY SECURITY

Why Energy Security?

Per capita electrical energy consumption (kWHr in 2008):


India 566

China
USA Global Average

2453
13647 2782

Per capita consumption in India is ~4% of that of USA and ~20% of global average Around 600 million Indians have no access to electricity. Around 700 million Indians are dependent on conventional fuels like firewood or agricultural biomass for their energy needs.

What is really Energy Security?


Primarily ensuring

Availability Affordability Sustainability

of energy for all citizens. Energy Security as defined by Integrated Energy Policy of Govt. of India: We are energy secure when we can supply lifeline energy to all our citizens irrespective of their ability to pay for it as well as to meet their effective demand for safe and convenient energy to satisfy their various needs at competitive prices at all times and with a prescribed confidence level, considering shocks and disruptions that can be reasonably expected.
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Energy From Where?

Fossil fuels Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Hydro Nuclear Renewables Solar Wind Biomass Tidal and Wave Geothermal

Understanding Energy Resources

Fossil Fuels: Currently dominate the energy scene due to


easy availability, maturity of technology and ease of use. However, suffer from environmental pollution.

Hydro Energy: Clean, inexpensive and abundantly available


in certain regions. However, suffer from issue of displacement of people, deforestation and seasonal availability.

Nuclear: Environmentally and economically acceptable.


Capacity expected to increase substantially in India. However compliance to safety standards needs to be ensured.

Renewables:

Environmentally clean and abundantly available. Technologies maturing and leading towards grid parity in cost. However these are time, season and site specific. Current capital costs are higher.
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How to Achieve Energy Security?

Technological Exploitation of all sources of energy Diverse blend of energy resources - fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, renewables Development and application of energy efficient and clean technologies Reduction of transmission and distribution losses Efficient utilisation of energy Commercial Exploration & acquisition of energy assets like coal, oil & gas reserves abroad Differential time-of-day tariffs Incentives for use of clean energy resources Regulatory Mandatory use of specific energy resource Standards for fuel efficiency Building codes/ green buildings Standards for energy efficient appliances Restriction on number of vehicles, etc.

How to Achieve Energy Security - Technological

Resource exploitation Maximize exploitation of untapped resources Coal, being the most abundant resource, is likely to be the mainstay of power generation in India Energy generation Technologies for energy efficient power generation Addressing the environmental issues appropriately - sustainability Energy transmission and distribution Reduction in T&D losses with suitable technology (e.g. HVDC, FACTS, CSR, STATCOM) Efficient utilization of energy IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) based 3-phase ac drives for railway traction Variable Frequency Drives for motors LEDs for lighting Higher efficiency appliances

Global Scenario of Power Generation Technologies


Non Conventional 3% Hydro 6%

Others 0%
Nuclear 2% Oil & Gas 2%

Hydro 17%

Non Conventional 0%

Others 0%

Nuclear 19%

Coal 50%

Oil & Gas 22%

USA

France : Nuclear 76% Canada : Hydro 59%


Others 0%

Coal 79%

Non Conventional 2% Hydro 14% Nuclear 2%

Non Conventional 3% Hydro 16%

CHINA

Others 0%

Coal 41%

Oil & Gas 14%

Nuclear 13%

INDIA

Coal 68%

Oil & Gas 27%

WORLD

Technologies for Efficient Power Generation (Coal & Gas)

Supercritical, Ultra Supercritical and Advanced Ultra Supercritical Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Underground Coal Gasification Combined cycles based on Advanced Class Gas Turbines

Future potential sources of energy: Coal Bed Methane Shale Gas Gas Hydrates Hydrogen

Supercritical Technology

Steam Parameters: 247 kg/cm2, 537 C / 565 C 247 kg/cm2, 565 C / 593 C Gross efficiency: 38 to 40% (2-3 % higher than sub critical) Well established globally for over two decades; being introduced in India One 660 MW plant synchronized at Mundra by Adani Power Over 45 plants ordered in India 13th Plan envisages all power plants in the country to be based on supercritical technology 1% efficiency improvement for 800 MW unit gives saving of ~300 tonnes of coal per day and reduces ~1050 tonnes of CO2 emission
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Ultra Supercritical Technologies


USC: Generally accepted criteria: Steam pressure 275 bar, temperature 600 C Mature USC Technology: 280 bar, 610/ 620 C Advanced USC: Steam parameters: 300 bar, 700 C, 700 C Efficiency: 43-45% Saves 1800 tonnes of coal per day Reduces CO2 emissions by 6300 tonnes per day Adv-USC technology under development in Europe, USA, Japan: Europe: COST536, AD700 and COMTES700, funded by EC, for development of materials and long term testing of components USA: DoE has initiated R&D programmes for development of materials suitable up to 350 bar & 760C Japan: Govt. promoted Cool Earth Innovative Programme for reducing carbon emissions. Developing materials for high temperatures

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Adv-USC Technology: Challenge of Materials

Currently available materials for super critical applications e.g. P92/T92 not suitable for >620 C Special materials required to withstand high temperatures and resist steam and fire side corrosion Materials like IN 617, IN 740, Haynes 282 developed and tested IN 617 already included in ASME code Technologies for welding and fabrication developed Components made of IN 617 tested in E.ON plant in Europe Cracks found in welded joint of thick walled section during component testing Further development and testing planned. Expected to be completed by 2015

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Trends in SC and USC Parameters

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GoI Initiative for Development of Adv-USC Technology


Development of Clean Coal (Carbon) Technologies A collaborative R&D effort, taken up as the Ninth Mission under the National Action Plan for Climate Change, under the guidance of the Principal Scientific Adviser (PSA) to GoI Empowered project team under PSA to drive the development Objective: To set up an indigenously designed 800 MW USC power plant with steam parameters of 300 bar and 700 C/ 700 C and be state of the art Time frame: 7 yrs (2.5 yrs for development and 4.5 yrs for installation) Core team members and their roles:

IGCAR Materials and manufacturing technologies NTPC Component testing, setting up and operating plant BHEL Thermal cycle, development, manufacture of major components

Academia, Research institutions in India and abroad and other companies to participate actively in this national endeavour

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Approach for USC Development in India


Selection and development of special Ni based alloys; testing and evaluation under simulated conditions Cost reduction by indigenization of materials and process technologies Welding technologies, welding consumables and fabrication technologies, e.g. castings, forgings, pipes, tubes Testing of components in existing plants Design and optimization of steam cycle Design and development of equipment such as steam generator, steam turbine, auxiliaries Setting up an 800 MW USC power plant Will meet objectives of energy security: Availability higher efficiency, coal to last longer Affordability cost reduction through indigenisation Sustainability reduced CO2 emissions
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Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Integration of two clean technologies: Coal gasification Gas Turbine based combined cycle

Advantages

Potential efficiency (~45%) higher than that of super-critical Lower CO2 emissions per MW of power Capture of CO2 easier with IGCC Low NOx (<25 ppm) and SOx (<245 ppm) emissions Low water consumption (<50% of pulverised coal fired plant) Fuel flexibility: coal as well as refinery residues (petcoke) Syn-gas can be used for conversion to oil, chemicals, fertiliser and hydrogen

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Milestones in IGCC Development in BHEL


Scale up: Geometrical - 1:1.14 Capacity - 1: 1.21 Pressure - 1:0.9

450- 650 MW IGCC


182 MW IGCC
APGENCO Vijaywada

Scale up: Geometrical - 1: 2.91 Capacity - 1: 11.1 Pressure - 1:3


Scale up: Geometrical - 1: 3.3 Capacity - 1: 9.33 Pressure - 1:1.2 Scale up: Geometrical - 1: 2.25 Capacity - 1: 15 Pressure - 1:5 Dia 0.2 m Press 2.0 ata
1.2 TPD (APFBG)

Future Commercial Scale IGCC Plant

125 MW
IGCC
6.2 MW CCDP Concept Design

18 TPD (PEDU)

Tiruchy

Corp. R&D, Hyderabad


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Corp R&D Hyderabad

6.2 MW IGCC Pilot Plant at BHEL

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182 MW Demonstration IGCC Project, APGENCO, Vijaywada


Rating 182 MW Fuel: Coal Gasifier 2265 tpd coal capacity using Pressurised Fluidised Bed Gasification (PFBG) technology Gasifier Pressure: 28 kg/cm2, Temperature: 1025 C Calorific Value of gas: >1100 kcal/Nm3 Gas clean-up system including barrier filters and wet scrubbers Frame 9E Gas Turbine: 102 MW Heat Recovery Steam Generator (Two pressure) Steam turbine: 80 MW Gross efficiency >40% Provision for firing natural gas as a back-up fuel Coal & ash handling system
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Some Current Coal Based IGCC Projects in World


Six coal based IGCC plants in operation IGCC plants under construction/ planning:

618 MW, Duke Energy, Edwardsport, Indiana, USA. Project cost: US$2.88 billion. Federal and state incentives: Over US$460 million. Expected completion: 2012
530 MW with CCS, Zero Gen, Queensland, Australia. The plant is largely funded by Governments of Australia and Queensland. Expected completion: 2014 250 MW (going up to 650 MW) Green Gen, China Huaneng Group, Tianjin, China. Financial support by Chinese government and special tariff. Expected completion: 2012 300 MW, KOWEPO, Taean, Korea. 30% funded by government. Expected completion: 2012

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Future Directions in IGCC


GTs with higher combustion temperatures (>1500 C) leading to efficiency over 50% GTs that can fire a hydrogen rich syn gas Warm gas cleanup systems to improve efficiency Ion Transport Membrane for separation of oxygen from air to reduce cost of oxy firing Membranes for high temperature separation of H2 and CO2 to reduce cost of carbon capture Integrated Gasification with Fuel Cells (IGFC), with efficiencies of 55% and above Conversion of syn-gas to liquid fuels and chemicals

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Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

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Underground Coal Gasification


UCG similar to IGCC except that gasification is in situ Advantages Deep, unrecoverable coal reserves can be exploited, increasing resource availability Conventional mining eliminated, reducing costs Cost of coal transportation avoided Fly ash disposal avoided Reduced pollutants Technology known for a long time Being further developed and demonstrated in Australia Govt. of India has announced a policy for UCG Currently in an exploratory phase in India BHEL can supply the above ground equipment

Advanced Class Gas Turbine Based Combined Cycle

Higher efficiency achieved through higher firing temperatures


General Electric (GE) H-Class Gas Turbine (1370C) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) J-Class Turbines (1600C) Turbines for temperature > 1700C under development

Enabled by advanced Ni based alloys, single crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings and steam cooling of blades, low NOx system Combined cycles

Triple pressure HRSG Supercritical HRSG Efficiency over 60%

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Coal Bed Methane (CBM)


CBM is a form of natural gas that occurs naturally in coal beds where methane is adsorbed in the coal and can be extracted. During normal mining it is released to the atmosphere as a GHG and is a safety threat. In US, Canada and Australia, CBM is being exploited as a new energy source, reducing local pollution and GHG. To extract CBM, a hole is drilled in the coal seam 100-1500 m below ground and as the pressure within the coal seam declines due to natural production or pumping of water from coal bed, both gas and water come to the surface through tubing where gas can be compressed and piped. CBM has considerable potential in India and exploratory work is in progress. 26 blocks have been awarded.

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Shale Gas & Gas Hydrates


Shale gas Shale gas is found embedded in shale rocks A few years back, it was considered unviable. Special techniques have been developed for cracking gas bearing rocks using high pressure water jets It has become a significant source of natural gas in US Collaborative ventures being discussed between India and US to explore this new source of energy Gas Hydrates Gas Hydrates are crystalline water based solids resembling ice, and are found naturally on many sea beds and lake beds As per estimates, the energy potential of gas hydrates is more than the entire reserves of natural gas in the world Gas hydrates have been found in Indias maritime zone However the technology for commercial exploitation is yet to be developed

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is being proposed as an efficient and clean carrier of energy. Hydrogen is found mainly bonded in water molecules and Hydrocarbons from where it needs to be extracted suitably, cleaned, processed, and used for power generation. Currently main producer of hydrogen is petrochemical industry where it is produced through catalytic reforming of natural gas, naphtha or other hydrocarbons. In chloralkali industry hydrogen is a byproduct. Hydrogen is also produced through electrolysis of water as well as through thermo chemical splitting of water at high temperatures (500-1000 C).

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Hydrogen (contd..)

Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells along with oxygen to produce electricity without much polluting emissions. Hydrogen can also be used in combustion engines to produce power for stationary as well as vehicular applications. Currently viability of Hydrogen economy is still being established in various countries and hydrogen highways are being planned in Canada, US Europe and many other countries. Efficient production, storage of Hydrogen and its safe usage are the subject of R&D along with establishing the technoeconomic viability in various applications BHEL is also pursuing fuel cell development based on phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane and solid oxide technology.

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Transmission, Distribution & Utilization of Energy


Efficient transmission, distribution and utilization are important aspects of ensuring energy security Many technologies being introduced to reduce losses in long distance transmission of power, viz. HVDC, High Voltage AC (HVAC) at 765 kV and in future 1200 kV For example, 10000 MW of power transmission over a line length of 1000 km incur technical losses of around

5% for 400kV ac 4% for 765 kV ac 2% for 1200 kV ac 3% for 800 kV HVDC

1% reduction in technical loss for such line is equivalent to additional power generation of 100 MW.

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Transmission, Distribution & Utilization of Energy (contd..)

Number of power electronic devices/systems have been developed and are in use for enhancing power transmission capacity and reducing losses like Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controlled Shunt Reactor (CSR) Static Compensator (STATCOM) Smart Grids being developed for integrating conventional and renewable power; and demand side management through intelligent metering, there by reducing energy consumption. Electric railway transportation is a major power user. Technologies being used today such as three phase ac drives systems using IGBT based inverters for locos and AC EMUs (also developed by BHEL) and regenerative braking improve overall performance.

Transmission, Distribution & Utilization of Energy (contd..)

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are promising devices used for illumination as a substitute of incandescent, fluorescent lamps and CFLs, reducing energy consumption to as low as one-tenth or so and having much longer life. GoI has launched the National Mission for Enhancement of Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) under National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), as a market based scheme to enhance efficiency in energy intensive industries. Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) rates various electrical appliances based on their energy efficiency. To become mandatory in future.

BHELs R&D Efforts Towards Energy Security


Emphasis on in house R&D towards development of new processes, products, technologies and systems. R&D expenditure nearly 2.5% of turnover at Rs 825 cr during 2009-10 and Rs 1000 cr during 2010-11. Turnover from commercialization of in-house developed products in 2009-10, Rs. 6723 cr and Rs 7600 cr in 2010-11. Files on an average one patent/copyright everyday. Energy security focus: Pioneered IGCC, Adv-USC, Fuel Cells, Superconducting Transformer, FACTS devices. Introduced Supercritical, Advanced Class GTs. Critical R&D challenges require multidisciplinary expertise and can only be met through collaborative efforts. Spin-off benefits include creation of trained technical manpower with interdisciplinary knowledge to meet future challenges. BHEL welcomes close collaboration with academia and research institutions both in India as well as abroad to synergize the knowledge and competencies available to hasten developments.
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Conclusion

India has to add 800,000 MW of power generation capacity by 2031-32 to meet the growing domestic and industrial needs. To meet this challenge, an optimum mix of various energy resources and technologies needs to be deployed. So far India has been following the developed world, but now the time has come to be abreast of the world. We have to benchmark our technologies to meet the challenge of providing energy to all at an affordable price and to be sustainable in the long term. India is fortunate enough to have one of the worlds largest pools of scientists and engineers We have to use this technical manpower to meet the challenge by developing cost effective technologies to fulfill the minimum requirement of energy of all citizens GoI having declared this decade as the decade of innovation and so the platform is well set for supporting collaborative R&D

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