Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

BrachiopodsStuff to know

Bold font terms in text Classification and stratigraphic ranges of Classes and Orders Be able to identify correct Order for any given specimen (not necessary to identify genera)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Living brachiopods

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

BrachiopodaPhylum overview
Solitary (but individuals often live in clusters) Bivalved, with each valve being bilaterally symmetrical Marine; mostly shallow marine (100200m), but can occur in depths >2000m Attached by pedicle or unattached; some infaunal Filter feeders
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 7

BrachiopodaPhylum overview
Possibly share a common ancestor with bryozoans (both groups possess a lophophore) Stratigraphic range is Early Cambrian to Recent Peak diversity in Ordovician, Devonian, Permian Major reduction coincident with end-Permian mass extinction Mesozoic peak diversity in Jurassic
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 8

Brachiopod diversity

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Classification
Phylum Brachiopoda
Early Cambrian-Recent

Class Inarticulata
mostly phosphatic articulation absent Early Cambrian-Recent

Class Articulata
calcitic articulation by teeth and sockets Early Cambrian-Recent

Order Lingulida
Early Cambrian-Recent

Order Orthida
Early Cambrian-Permian

Order Strophomenida
Ordovician-Triassic

Order Pentamerida
Middle Cambrian-Devonian

Order Rhynchonellida
Ordovician-Recent

Order Spiriferida
Ordovician-Jurassic
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

Order Terebratulida
Early Devonian-Recent
10

Brachiopod morphology
Ventral valve (a.k.a. pedicle valve)
Lower or bottom valve

Dorsal valve (a.k.a. brachial valve)


Upper or top valve

Foramen = pedicle opening (largely or entirely in pedicle valve) Anterior = end of shell opposite foramen Posterior = end of shell containing foramen Commissure = line along which two valves meet Hinge = articulation mechanism
Teeth in pedicle valve; sockets in brachial valve
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 11

Brachiopod morphology

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

12

Hinge, teeth and sockets

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

13

Brachiopod morphology
Shells may be highly ornamented
Growth lines (concentric) Ribs (radial) Fold (major raised area) Sulcus (major depressed area) Spines (sometimes extensions of growth lamellae; sometimes discrete structures)
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 14

Shell ornamentation

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

15

Features of the posterior region (pedicle and hinge region)


Pedicle opening
Delthyrium = triagular opening in pedicle valve Notothyrium = smaller opening in brachial valve Interarea = planar or curved surface between beak and hingeline
Ventral interarea Dorsal interarea
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 16

Posterior region

beak

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

17

Posterior region (cont.)


Among articulate forms, those with a hinge line are strophic; those without are astrophic

astrohpic strophic
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 18

Internal features
Body cavity houses major organs in posterior region of shell Mantle cavity in anterior region of shell is mostly open space Lophophore = ciliated, arm-like structure that serves for respiration and food gathering Pedicle = muscular stalk for attachment to external objects or substrate Adductor and diductor muscles
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 19

Internal soft anatomy

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

20

Musculature
(valves tend to close and stay closed upon death)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

21

Lophophore
Usually a two-part structure, with each half (brachium; plural brachia) leading to the mouth May be complexly looped or coiled May be supported by a mineralized structurespiralium (plural spiralia) or brachidium (plural brachidia)
Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 22

Lophophore types

brachia

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

23

Lophophore supports

spiralia

looped brachidia

looped brachidia

spiralia

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

24

Class Inarticulata
Lingula ia an example of a living fossil Relatively low diversity since Ordovician time Infaunal, with long fleshy pedicle

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

25

Inarticulate brachiopods (Lingula et al.)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

26

Order Orthida
Strophic; unequally biconvex valves; usually with welldeveloped delthyrium/notothyrium openings in interareas

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

27

Order Strophomenida
Strophic; convex ventral valve/concave dorsal valve

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

28

Order Strophomenida
Strophic; convex ventral valve/concave dorsal valve

(Suborder Productina)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

29

Order Pentamerida
Strophic or astrophic; strongly biconvex with incurved beaks; open delthyrium with spoon-shaped structure (spondylium)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

30

Order Rhynchonellida
Astrophic; biconvex shell with dorsal fold and ventral sulcus

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

31

Order Spiriferida
Variable shell form; spiralia supports for lophophore

(Suborder Spiriferina)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

32

Order Spiriferida
Variable shell form; spiralia supports for lophophore

(Suborder Atrypina)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

33

Order Spiriferida
Variable shell form; spiralia supports for lophophore

(Suborder Athyrina)

Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda

34

Order Terebratulida
Astrophic (rarely strophic); biconvex shell; loop supports for lophophore

Cererithyris (Jurassic) Fossils & EvolutionBrachiopoda 35

Похожие интересы