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Data Quality

GiGo: garbage in, garbage out Cos its in the computer, dont mean its right
Its not the things you dont know that matter, its the things you know that arent so.
Will Rogers, Famous Okie GI specialist

But there are also unknown unknowns: the ones we don't know we don't know. Donald Rumsfeld Fast is fine, but accuracy is everything. Wyatt Earp
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Horwoods Short Laws on Data

Dr. Edgar Horwood, founder of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) and Professor of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning at the University of Washington was an early pioneer of computer mapping in the early 1960s.

Good data are the data you already have. Bad data drives out good. The data you have for the present crisis was collected to relate to the previous one. The respectability of existing data grows with elapsed time and distance from the source of the data. Data can be moved from one office to another but cannot be created or destroyed. If you have the right data, you have the wrong problem; and vice versa. The important thing is not what you do but how you measure it. In complex systems there is no relationship between the information gathered and the decision made. The acquisition of knowledge from experience is an exception. Knowledge grows at half the rate at which academic courses proliferate.

For more information, go to: http://urisa.org/prev/GIS_Hall_of_Fame/halloffame.htm

9/6/2013 Ron Briggs, UTDallas GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals

Data Quality: How good is your data?

ratio of distance on a map to the equivalent distance on the earth's surface Primarily an output issue; at what scale do I wish to display?

Precision or Resolution
the exactness of measurement or description Determined by input; can output at lower (but not higher) resolution

the degree of correspondence between data and the real world Fundamentally controlled by the quality of the input

The original sources for the data and the processing steps it has undergone

the degree to which data represents the world at the present moment in time

Documentation or Metadata
data about data: recording all of the above

Common or agreed-to ways of doing things Data built to standards is more valuable since its more easily shareable

ratio of distance on a map, to the equivalent distance on the earth's surface.
Large scale -->large detail, small area covered (1=200 or 1:2,400) Small scale -->small detail, large area (1:250,000) A given object (e.g. land parcel) appears larger on a large scale map

scale can never be constant everywhere on a map cos of map projection

problem is worst for small scale maps & certain projections (e.g. mercator) can be true from a single point to everywhere can be true along a line , or a set of lines on large scale maps, adjustments often made to achieve close to true scale everywhere (e.g State Plane and UTM systems) 0ne inch each equals one statute mile 1: 63,360

scale representation
use them all on a map!

Verbal: (good for interpretation.) representative fraction (RF) (good for measurement) (smaller fraction=smaller scale: 1:2,000,000 smaller than 1:2,000) scale bar: (good if enlarged/reduced)
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GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals

Scale Examples
Common Scales
1:200 (1=16.8ft) 1:2,000 (1=56 yards; 1cm=20m) 1:20,000 (5cm=1km) 1:24,000 (1=2,000ft) 1:25,000 (1cm=.5km) 1:50,000 (2cm=1km) 1:62,500 (1.6cm=1km; 1=.986mi) 1:63,360 (1=1mile; 1cm=.634km) 1:100,000 (1=1.58mi; 1cm=1km) 1:500,000 (1=7.9mi; 1cm=5km) 1:1,000,000(1=15.8mi; 1cm=10km) 1:7,500,000(1=118mi); 1cm=750km)

Large versus Small large: above 1:12,500 medium: 1:13,000 - 1:126,720 small: 1:130,000 - 1:1,000,000 very small: below 1:1,000,000 ( really, relative to whats available for a given area; Maling 1989) Map sheet examples: 1:24,000: 7.5 minute USGS Quads (17 by 22 inches; 6 by 8 miles) 1:7,500,000 US wall map (26 by 16 inches) 1:20,000,000: US 8.5 X 11

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Scale, Resolution & Accuracy in GIS Systems

On paper maps, scale is hard to change, thus it generally determines resolution and accuracy--and consistent decisions are made for these. A GIS is scale independent since output can be produced at any scale, irrespective of the characteristics of the input data at least in theory in practice, an implicit range of scales or maximum scale for anticipated output should be chosen and used to determine: what features to show
manholes only on large scale maps

how features will be represented

manhole a polygon at 1:50; cities a point at 1:1,000,000

appropriate levels for accuracy and precision

Larger scale generally requires greater resolution Larger scale necessitates a higher level of accuracy

GIS also helps with the the generalization problem implicit in paper maps A road drawn with 0.5 mm wide line (the smallest for decent visibility)
At 1:24,000 implies the road is 12 meters (36 feet) wide At 1:250,000 implies the road is 125 meters (375 feet) wide

At least in a GIS you can store the true road width, but be careful with plots! 6
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Precision or Resolution
its not the same as scale or accuracy!
Precision: the exactness of measurement or description the size of the smallest feature which can be displayed, recognized, or described Can apply to space, time (e.g. daily versus annual), or attribute (douglas fir v. conifer) for raster data, it is the size of the pixel (resolution)
e.g. for NTGISC digital orthos is 1.6ft (half meter) 3.2ft

eg 1.6 ft to 3.2 ft (1/4 storage); to 6.4 ft (1/16 storage)

resolution and scale

generally, increasing to larger scale allows features to be observed better and requires higher resolution but, because of the human eyes ability to recognize patterns, features in a lower resolution data set can sometimes be observed better by decreasing the scale (6.4 ft resolution shown at 1:400 rather than 1:200)

resolution and positional accuracy

you can see a feature (resolution), but it may not be in the right place (accuracy) higher accuracy generally costs much more to obtain than higher resolution accuracy cannot be greater (but may be much less) than resolution (e.g. if pixel size is one meter, then best accuracy possible is one meter)
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raster data can be resampled by combining adjacent cells; this decreases resolution but saves storage



rests on at least four legs, not one!

Positional Accuracy (sometimes called Quantitative accuracy)

Spatial horizontal accuracy: distance from true location vertical accuracy: difference from true height Temporal Difference from actual time and/or date

Attribute Accuracy or Consistency-- the validity concept in experimental design/stat. inf.

a feature is what the GIS/map purports it to be a railroad is a railroad, and not a road A soil sample agrees with the type mapped

Completeness--the reliability concept from experimental design/stat. inf.

Are all instances of a feature the GIS/map claims to include, in fact, there? Partially a function of the criteria for including features: when does a road become a track? Simply put, how much data is missing?

Logical Consistency: The presence of contradictory relationships in the database

Some crimes recorded at place of occurrence, others at place where report taken Data for one country is for 2000, for another its for 2001 Annual data series not taken on same day/month etc. (sometimes called lineage error) Data uses different source or estimation technique for different years (again, lineage)

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Error is the inverse of accuracy. It is a discrepancy between the coded and actual values.
Inherent instability of the phenomena itself
E.g. Random variation of most phenomena (e.g. leaf size)

Sources of Error

E.g. surveyor or instrument error

Model used to represent data

E.g. choice of spheroid, or classification systems

Data encoding and entry

E.g. keying or digitizing errors

Example for Positional Accuracy choice of spheroid and datum choice of map projection and its parameters accuracy of measured locations (surveying) of features on earth media stability (stretching ,folding, wrinkling of maps, photos) human drafting, digitizing or interpretation error resolution &/or accuracy of drafting/digitizing equipment
Thinnest visible line: 0.1-0.2 millimeters At scale of 1:20,000 = 6.5 - 12.8 feet
(20,000 x 0.2 = 4,000mm = 4m = 12.8 feet)

Data processing
E.g. single versus double precision; algorithms used

Propagation or cascading from one data set to another

E.g. using inaccurate layer as source for another layer
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registration accuracy of tics machine precision: coordinate rounding error in storage and manipulation other unknown

GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals

usually measured by root mean square error: the square root of the average squared errors

Measurement of Positional Accuracy

rmse = e12 + e22 + e32 +...+ en2 n-1

where ei is the distance (horizontally or vertically )between the tue location of point i on the ground, and its location represented in the GIS.

Usually expressed as a probability that no more than P% of points will be further than S distance from their true location. Loosely we say that the rmse tells us how far recorded points in the GIS are from their true location on the ground, on average. More correctly, based on the normal distribution of errors, 68% of points will be rmse distance or less from their true location, 95% will be no more than twice this distance, providing the errors are random and not systematic (i.e. the mean of the errors is zero)
e.g. for NTGISC digital orthos RMSE is 3.2 feet (one meter) for USGS Digital Ortho Quads RMSE spec. is approx. 33 feet or 10 meters (but in reality much better) -- with GPS, height is 2 or 3 times less accurate in practice at high precision
than horizontal (officially the spec is 1.5, but data collection errors affect vertical the most)
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National Map Accuracy Standards: 1941/47

established in 1941 by the US Bureau of the Budget (now OMB) for use with US Geological Survey maps (Maling, 1989, p. 146) horizontal accuracy: not more than 10% of tested, well defined points shall be more than the following distances from their true location:
1:62,500: 1/50th of an inch (.02) 1:24,000: 1/40th of an inch (amended to 1/50=.02 in 1947) 1:12,000: 1/30 of an inch (.033)
Smaller scale

1/50=.02 1/30=.033

Larger scale

Thus, on maps with a scale of 1:63,360 (1=1 mile) 90% of points should be within 105.6 feet [(63360 X .02)/12)] of their true location. on USGS quads with a scale of 1:24,000 (1=2,000ft) 90% of points should be within 40 feet [(24,000 X .02)/12] of their true location. on a map with a scale of 1:12,000 (1=1,000ft), 90% of points should be within 33 feet (1,000 X .033), approx. 10 meters gives rise to the loose, but often used, statement that the NMAS is 10 meters Inadequate for the computer age
how many points? how select? how determine their true location what about attribute completeness?

Unfortunately, the new standard doesnt address all these issues either
9/6/2013 Ron Briggs, UTDallas GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals


National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA) 1998

Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standard (FGDC-STD-007)
Part 3, National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy FGDC-STD-007.3-1998 replacement for National Map Accuracy Standard of 1941/47 specifies a statistic and testing methodology for positional (horizontal and vertical) accuracy of maps and digital data no single threshold metric to achieve (as with old Standard), but users encouraged to establish thresholds for specific applications accuracy reported in ground units (not map units as in 1941 standard [1/30th inch])

testing method compares data set point coordinate values with coordinate values from a higher accuracy source for readily visible or recoverable ground points altho. uses points, principles apply to all geospatial data including point, vector and raster objects
other standards for data content will adopt NSSDA for particular spatial objects

copies of the standard available at: http://www.fgdc.gov Accuracy Standard has 7 parts, of which parts 4-7 apply to specific data types
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GPS and Positional Accuracy

Global Positioning System satellite positioning with WAAS (wide area augmentation system) adjustment gives positional accuracy within about 3 meters (10ft). This is more accurate than most printed maps and nautical charts! It is also more accurate than most digital maps and charts since these often derive from paper maps and surveys conducted prior to GPS
Your integrated GPS/digital chart can show you nicely heading down the center of a channel, but positional inaccuracy in the chart can leave you grounded!

According to chart

In reality

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Summary: Resolution, Scale, Accuracy & Storage:

illustrating the relationship
Pixel (actual meters) 5 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 Map Scale (max.) Map Scale (equiv.) 1=2,000ft 1=800ft 1=400ft 1=200ft 1=100ft 1=50ft Accuracy (max. meters) 5 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 Accuray (NMAS meters (ft)) 12.2 (40.0) Storage (MB)

1:24,000 1:9,600 1:4,800 1:2,400 1:1,200 1:600

8.1 (26.7) 50 4.06 (13.33) 200 2.03 (6.67) 800 1.0 (3.33) 3,200 12,800

Largest (maximum) scale for given pixel size. Storage is for USGS 7.5 quad. area
(in Texas, USGS quad is about 7 mi x 8.5 mi=60 sq. miles--16 quads for Dallas County)
Source: GPS Technology Corporation
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Examples of Accuracy
Go to quality_graphics.ppt

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identifies the original sources from which the data was derived details the processing steps through which the data has gone to reach its current form Both impact its accuracy Both should be in the metadata, and are required by the Content Standard for Metadata (see below) Michael Goodchild ( the guru of GIS) advocates:
Measurement-based GIS, in which how data collected and how measurements made are a part of the record (as in surveying) Coordinate-based GIS, is the current approach, and it tracks none of this.
(see Shi, Fisher and Goodchild Spatial Data Quality London: Taylor and Frances, 2002)
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Currency: Is my data up-to-date?

data is always relative to a specific point in time, which must be documented.
there are important applications for historical data (e.g. analyzing trends), so dont necessarily trash old data

current data requires a specific plan for on-going maintenance

may be continuous, or at pre-defined points in time. otherwise, data becomes outdated very quickly

currency is not really an independent quality dimension; it is simply a factor contributing to lack of accuracy regarding
consistency: some GIS features do not match those in the real world today completeness: some real world features are missing from the GIS database

Many organizations spend substantial amounts acquiring a data set without giving any thought to how it will be maintained.
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May exist for:

Standards: common agreed-to ways of doing things

Data itself [including process (the way its produced) and product (the outcome)]
Utilities Data Content Standard, FGDC-STD-010-2000

Accuracy of data
Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standard, Part 3, National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy, FGDC-STD-007.3-1998

Documentation about the data (metadata)

Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version 2.0), FGDC-STD-001-1998

Transfer of data and its documentation

Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS), FGDC-STD-002

For symbology and presentation

Digital Geologic Map Symbolization

May address:
Content (what is recorded) Format (how its recorded: file format, .tif, shapefile, etc)

May be a product of:

An organizations internal actions [private or organization standards] An external government body (Federal Geographic Data Committee) or third sector body (Open GIS Consortium) [public or de jure standards] Laissez-faire market-place-forces leading to one dominant approach e.g. Wintel standard [industry or de facto standards]


Who Sets Public Standards ?

Federal Geographic Data Committee
Sets standards for geospatial data which all federal agencies are required to follow Has representatives from most federal agencies National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) sets federal gov. standards for other things (e.g. IT in general)

national standards bodies

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
has the USs single vote at ISO

United States InterNational Committee on Information Technology Standards (INCITS) handles IT standards for ANSI Several FGDC standards been submitted for approval Most countries in the world have their equivalent to ANSI

international standards bodies

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

other assorted vendor groups, professional associations, trade associations, and consortia Open GIS Consortium (OGC) is the main player in GIS
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The Process for Setting de jure standards!

Source: URISA News Issue 197, Sept/Oct. 2003

Go to the following web site for excellent overview of standard making: process http://www.fgdc.gov/publications/documents/standards/geospatial_standards_part1.html

Adopting Standards: What you should do

Data quality achieved by adoption and use of standards: Do it!
Common ways of doing things essential for using & sharing data internally and externally

only federal agencies required to use FGDC standards, its optional for any others (e.g. state, local)
power of feds often results in adoption by everybody, although there are some noted failures (e.g.the OSI, GOSIP, & POSIX standards in computing in the 1980s failed and were withdrawn)

FGDC or ISO standards provide excellent starting point for local standards, and should be adopted unless there are compelling reasons otherwise Standards for metadata (documenting your data) are the most important and should be first priority.
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version 2.0), FGDC-STD-001-1998 ISO Document 19115 Geographic Information-Metadata (content) and 19139, Geographic InformationMetadataImplementation Specification, (format for storing ISO 19115 metadata in XML format)

If not one of these standard for metadata, adopt some standard!

9/6/2013 Ron Briggs, UTDallas GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals


Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata What and Why?

Metadata describes the content, quality, format, source and other characteristics of data. Allows you and others to:
Locate data (find, discover) Evaluate data (quality, restrictions, reputation) Extract (order, download, pay) Employ (apply, use)

and automate this process.

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Main Sections of the US Federal

Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Title? Area covered? Themes? Currency? Restrictions?

Data Quality (5 aspects)

Positional & Attribute Accuracy? Completeness? Logical Consistency? Lineage?

Spatial Data Organization

Indirect? Vector? Raster? Type of elements? Number?

Spatial Reference
Projection? Grid system? Datum? Coordinate system?

Entity and Attribute Information

Features? Attributes? Attribute values?

Distributor? Formats? Media? Online? Price?

Metadata Reference
Metadata currency? Responsible party?

For more info, go to: http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/contstan.html

By law (Executive Order 12906, 1994), all federal agencies must document their data according to:

Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version 2.0), FGDC-STD-001-1998

Traditional Minimum Documentation Requirements for Maps/GIS

geodetic datum name (e.g NAD27)--which implies:
ellipsoid/spheroid name (earth model) e.g. Clark 1866 point of origin (ties ellipsoid to earth) e.g Meades Ranch required for all GIS data bases and maps

projection name and its parameters and its measurement units

(see terrestrial lecture for exact details) Required for all maps since 2-D by nature Required for GIS if data is in X-Y projected form

Source information
accuracy standard(s) to which built author/publisher/creator name and/or data source date(s) of data collection/update, and of map/gis creation

Cartographers demand all maps have

north arrow map scale graticule indication

+ +

tic marks: Points of positional reference used to relate map to ground or other map

+ +

at least four latitude/longitude tic marks, with values in degrees at least four X-Y tic marks, with values and units of measurement (feet, meters, etc.)

Texas Standards
http://www.dir.state.tx.us/tgic/pubs/pubs.htm Standards for digital spatial data (raster and vector) for State agencies in Texas were established in 1992
http://www.dir.state.tx.us/tgic/pubs/gis-standards.htm Currently (2004), being reviewed by the Texas Geographic Information Council (TGIC) for possible update Apply to map scales of 1:24,000 and smaller (e.g., 1:100,000; 1:250,000). Cover variety of issues including data layers, datum, projections, accuracy, metadata, etc..

Two major planning reports on GIS in state gov. in Texas are:

Digital Texas: 2002 Biennial Report on Geographic Information Systems Technology http://www.dir.state.tx.us/tgic/pubs/gift99-small.pdf Geographic Information Framework for Texas (1999) http://www.dir.state.tx.us/tgic/pubs/digtex-lowres.pdf
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Importance of Standards
Great Baltimore Fire of 1904 - fire engines from different regions responded only to be found useless since they had different hose coupling sizes that did not fit Baltimore hydrants - fire burned over 30 hours, resulted in destruction of 1526 building covering 17 city blocks. Fire 1923 - Fall River, MA saved when over 20 neighboring fire department responded to a town fire since they had standardized on hydrants and hose couplings sizes. 9/11: Response in NY and DC severely hampered by
incompatibilities between GIS data sets, and lack of data Also, incompatibilities between communications systems

The most important standard?

Railroad track gauge - adopted by US, UK, Canada, and much of Europe. South America still hampered by differing railroad gauges between countries.
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The Best Time to Adopt a Standard?



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FGDC Standards
(status as of March 2004) For latest, go to: http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/standards.html

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FGDC: Metadata Standards

Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version 2.0) FGDC-STD-001-1998 Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, Part 1: Biological Data Profile FGDC-STD-001.1-1999 Metadata Profile for Shoreline Data (FGDC-STD-001.2-2001) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: extension for remote sensing data (FGDC-STD-0012-2002) Encoding Standard for Geospatial Metadata (Draft) Metadata Profile for Cultural and Demographic Data (dropped)

Current thrust is to integrate FGDC Metadata standards (and other FGDC standards eventually) into International Standards Organization (ISO) standards.
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FGDC: Data Accuracy Standard

Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standard (FGDC-STD-007)
Part 1, Reporting Methodology FGDC-STD-007.1-1998 Part 2, Geodetic Control Networks FGDC-STD-007.2-1998 Part 3, National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy FGDC-STD-007.31998 Part 4: Architecture, Engineering Construction, and Facilities Management (FGDC-STD-007.4-2002), Part 5: Standard for Hydrographic Surveys and Nautical Charts (Review)

An umbrella incorporating several accuracy standards. Part 3 is the general standard. It essentially updates the National Map Accuracy Standard of 1941/47
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FGDC: Data Content Standards

Cadastral Data Content Standard FGDCSTD-003 Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats FGDC-STD-004 Vegetation Classification Standard FGDCSTD-005 Soils Geographic Data Standard, FGDCSTD-006 Content Standard for Digital Orthoimagery, (FGDC-STD-008-1999)
Content Standard for Remote Sensing Swath Data, (FGDC-STD-009-1999) Utilities Data Content Standard, (FGDC-STD010-2000)

Facility ID Data Standard, (Review) Address Content Standard (Review) US National Grid (FGDC-STD-0011-2001)

Earth Cover Classification System, (draft)

Geologic Data Model, (Draft)

Governmental Unit Boundary Data Content Standard, (Draft)

NSDI Framework Transportation Identification Standard, (Review) Hydrographic Data Content Standard for Coastal and Inland Waterways, (Review)
Content Standard for Framework Land Elevation Data, (Review)

Biological Nomenclature and Taxonomy Data Standard (draft) National Hydrography Framework Geospatial Data Content Standard (proposal) Environmental Hazards Geospatial Data Content Standard, (dropped) NSDI Framework Data layers (under Reviewsee next slide)

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GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals

FGDC: Framework Data Standards

establish data content requirements for the seven layers of geospatial data that comprise the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), the base layers needed for any geographic area geodetic control, Transportation elevation, Cadastral (landownership) Orthoimagery governmental unit boundaries Hydrography (water) Goals are to
Facilitate and promote exchange of framework layers between producers, consumers, and vendors thru a common content and way of describing that content Lower the cost of data for everyone

For each layer, specifies an integrated application schema in Unified Modeling Language (UML) including feature types, attribute types, attribute domain, feature relationships, spatial representation, data organization, and metadata no standard specified for data format, but an appendix describes a possible implementation using the Geography Markup Language (GML) Version 3.0, developed through the Open GIS Consortium, Inc. (OGC).

FGDC: Data Transfer Standards

Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) FGDC-STD-002
SDTS, Part 1 Logical Specification (FIPSPUB 173-1, July 1994) SDTS, Part 2 Spatial Features (FIPSPUB 173-1, July 1994) SDTS, Part 3 ISO 8211 Encoding (FIPSPUB 173-1, July 1994) SDTS, Part 4 Topological Vector Encoding (FIPSPUB 173-1, July 1994) SDTS, Part 5 Raster Profile and Extensions (FGDC-STD-002.5, 2000) SDTS, Part 6: Point Profile, FGDC-STD-002.6, 2000 SDTS Part 7: Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) Profile (FGDC-STD-002.7, 2000)

One of the first of the FGDC standards (along with metadata). Intended to facilitate transfers between different GIS systems. Competitive pressures plus internal weaknesses hindered adoption.
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FGDC: Data Symbology and Presentation Standards

Digital Geologic Map Symbolization, (Review)

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