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Lecture 3

Impact of Sour Gas & Non-hydrocarbon components on compressibility factor:


Sour natural gases containing H2S and/or CO2 frequently exhibit different compressibility factor behavior than do sweet natural gases. A calculation procedure to account for these differences includes pseudo-critical temperature adjustment factor which is a function of the concentration of CO2 and H2S in the sour gas. This correction factor is then used to adjust the pseudo-critical temperature and pressure according to the following expressions.

= 120(A0.9 A1.6) + 15(B0.5 B4.0)


Where:

= adjustment factor
A = sum of mole fractions of CO2 and H2S B = mole fraction of H2S The pseudo-critical temperature is modified to get the adjusted pseudo-critical temperature
Tpc = T pc -

Similarly the pseudo-critical pressure is adjusted as Ppc = Ppc x Tpc / { Tpc +B(1-B) }

Problem:
A natural gas mixture consists of the following composition:
Component Mole Fraction

CH4
C2H6 C3H8 N2 CO2 H2S

a). Calculate the apparent Mol.wt of gas, gas gravity, Pseudocritical temp and Pseudo-critical pressure b). Calculate the compressibility factor for gas at 900 F and 1200 psia.

Exploration Of N.G
The methods used to discover natural gas reservoirs are essentially those used to petroleum reservoirs. to search for surface evidence of the underground formations (capable of being reservoirs) seepages of gas emitted from underground. The only way of being certain is to drill an exploratory well

Methods used
Geological Survey Seismic Survey Magnetometers

Production Of N.G
Well Completion
This process includes strengthening the well hole (wellbore) with casing, evaluating the pressure and temperature of the formation, and then installing the proper equipment to ensure an efficient flow of natural gas out of the well.

1. Conductor casing (20 to 50 ft long, installed to prevent


the top of the well from caving in and to help in the process of circulating the drilling fluid up from the bottom of the well)

2. Surface casing (2,000 ft long, to protect freshwater


deposits near the surface of the well from being contaminated by leaking hydrocarbons or saltwater from deeper underground)

3. Intermediate casing (longest section of casing) 4. Liner string (used instead of intermediate casing and are
commonly run from the bottom of another type of casing to the open well area.

5. Production casing (deepest section of casing in a well


provides a conduit from the surface of the well to the petroleum producing formation

The Wellhead
This consists of the pieces of equipment mounted at the opening of the well to regulate and monitor the extraction of hydrocarbons from the underground formation.

The casing-head:
consists of heavy fittings that provide a seal between the casing and the surface

The Christmas tree:


is the piece of equipment that fits atop the casing and tubing heads, and contains tubes and valves that serve to control the flow of hydrocarbons and other fluids out of the well