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Systems Approach

i. Systems approach is an active planning concept taken from engineering science and automated communication system. ii. Latest concept in educational technology

iii. Initially developed and used in the field of engineering

and management. iv. Historically developed during second world war. v. System refers to wholeness, interrelationships among parts or elements and self-regulation.

Meaning of the word System

Websters Dictionary:


A regularly interacting or independent group of

items forming a unified whole.

ii. A group of objects related or interacting so as to form a unity. iii. An organized or established procedure

iv. A methodically arranged set of ideas, principles,

methods or procedures.

Meaning of the word System


A system is an integrated assembly of interacting

elements, designed to carry out co-operatively

a pre determined function.


A system is a set of inter-related and interdependent elements.

Characteristics of Systems
i. Universal concept ii. Self-governing and self-maintaining structure iii. Dynamic and integrated whole iv. Systematic organization of complex, self-dependent

and inter-dependent parts.

v. Each part of a system has its own specific role and inter-relation with other parts. vi. Efficiency of a system as a unified whole is better vii. Focus is on achievement of specified objectives

Types of Systems i. Natural Systems Systems: Types-I

iii. Natural & Man Made ii. Man-Made Systems

Types of Systems-II i. Social Systems Systems: Types-II

iii. Personality Systems ii. Cultural Systems

Sub-system, System, Supra-system



Aspects of System





Education A System System Science EducationAs As A

Students Teachers Teaching Learning Improved


Pedagogy Infrastructure


Knowledge of
students & teachers



Any arrangement or combination, of interacting parts

or elements, in a whole (Bertalanffy, 1968). Universal in nature Characterized not only by their parts, but, by the relationships between these parts as well as their relationship to other systems in the environment
Donella Meadow (2008): Systems Approach t hones peoples abilities to understand parts, see interconnections, & ultimately, to envision new possibilities for re-designing the world.

Systems Approach to Education

i. Kershaw and Mckean (1959) , Systems approach is one of the techniques which aims to find the most efficient and economically intelligent methods for solving the problems of education scientifically. ii. Neil: Systems Approach to education is defined as a particular method of exploration to find effective ways of talking about, designing & organizing learning situations in practice.

Systems Approach to Education

KaufmanSystems Approach is a tool developed to make the educational adventure more responsive, responsible, logical, orderly, self-correctible and flexible rather than intuitive, unordered, indefinable and doubtful.

Steps of Systems Approach as Applied to Instructional System

(Wittich & Schuller)

i. ii.

Identifying task / problem Analyzing situation

iii. Identifying Objectives

iv. Specifying resources (materials & methods) to be used and

constraints v. Constructing a preliminary design

vi. Trying-out & Evaluating the design

vii. Modifying on the basis of feedback viii. Implement

Application of Systems Approach to Education

i. Development and Improvement of instructional

ii. Needs analysis & Specification of objectives iii. Efficient use of resources iv. Increase in control & co-ordination v. Improved ways of panning vi. Making training effective vii. Improvement in over-all quality of education