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Systems Approach

i. Systems approach is an active planning concept taken from engineering science and automated communication system. ii. Latest concept in educational technology

iii. Initially developed and used in the field of engineering


and management. iv. Historically developed during second world war. v. System refers to wholeness, interrelationships among parts or elements and self-regulation.

Meaning of the word System


Websters Dictionary:

i.

A regularly interacting or independent group of


items forming a unified whole.

ii. A group of objects related or interacting so as to form a unity. iii. An organized or established procedure

iv. A methodically arranged set of ideas, principles,


methods or procedures.

Meaning of the word System


Banghart:

A system is an integrated assembly of interacting


elements, designed to carry out co-operatively

a pre determined function.


Ackoff:

A system is a set of inter-related and interdependent elements.

Characteristics of Systems
i. Universal concept ii. Self-governing and self-maintaining structure iii. Dynamic and integrated whole iv. Systematic organization of complex, self-dependent

and inter-dependent parts.


v. Each part of a system has its own specific role and inter-relation with other parts. vi. Efficiency of a system as a unified whole is better vii. Focus is on achievement of specified objectives

Types of Systems i. Natural Systems Systems: Types-I


iii. Natural & Man Made ii. Man-Made Systems

Types of Systems-II i. Social Systems Systems: Types-II


iii. Personality Systems ii. Cultural Systems

Sub-system, System, Supra-system

SupraSystem

System
Sub-System

Aspects of System

INPUT

PROCESS
FEEDBACK

OUTPUT

ENVIRONMENT

Education A System System Science EducationAs As A


Inputs
Students Teachers Teaching Learning Improved

Output

Content
Pedagogy Infrastructure

Process

Knowledge of
students & teachers

Feedback

CONCEPT OF SYSTEMS APPROACH


Any arrangement or combination, of interacting parts

or elements, in a whole (Bertalanffy, 1968). Universal in nature Characterized not only by their parts, but, by the relationships between these parts as well as their relationship to other systems in the environment
Donella Meadow (2008): Systems Approach t hones peoples abilities to understand parts, see interconnections, & ultimately, to envision new possibilities for re-designing the world.

Systems Approach to Education


i. Kershaw and Mckean (1959) , Systems approach is one of the techniques which aims to find the most efficient and economically intelligent methods for solving the problems of education scientifically. ii. Neil: Systems Approach to education is defined as a particular method of exploration to find effective ways of talking about, designing & organizing learning situations in practice.

Systems Approach to Education


KaufmanSystems Approach is a tool developed to make the educational adventure more responsive, responsible, logical, orderly, self-correctible and flexible rather than intuitive, unordered, indefinable and doubtful.

Steps of Systems Approach as Applied to Instructional System


(Wittich & Schuller)

i. ii.

Identifying task / problem Analyzing situation

iii. Identifying Objectives

iv. Specifying resources (materials & methods) to be used and


constraints v. Constructing a preliminary design

vi. Trying-out & Evaluating the design


vii. Modifying on the basis of feedback viii. Implement

Application of Systems Approach to Education


i. Development and Improvement of instructional

system
ii. Needs analysis & Specification of objectives iii. Efficient use of resources iv. Increase in control & co-ordination v. Improved ways of panning vi. Making training effective vii. Improvement in over-all quality of education